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Unformatted text preview: LATIN AMERICAN LITERATURE AND CULTURE General Editor Roberto Gonzalez Eche-va"ia Sterling Professor ofHispanic and Comparative Literatures Yale University I. This Earth, That Sky, by Manuel Bandeira, translated by Candace Slater 2. The Daily Daily, by Nicolas Guillen, translated by Vera M. Kutzmski 3. The Dissonant Legacy ofModernismo: Lugones, Herrera y Reissig, and VOices ofModern Spanish American Poetry, by Gwen Kirkpatrick 4-. Selected Odes ofPablo Neruda, by Pablo Neruda, translated by Margaret Sayers Peden 5. Eva the Fugitive, by Rosamel del Valle, translated by Anna Balakian 6. History ofa VOyage to the Land ofBrazil, Otherwise Called America, by Jean de Ury, translated by Janet Whatley 7. Canto General, by Pablo Neruda, translated by Jack Schmitt 8. Foundational Fictions: The National Romances ofLatin America, by Doris Sommer 9. Reading Columbus, by Margarita Zamora 10. Castaways: The Narrative ofAlvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, edited by Enrique Pupo-Walker, translated by Frances M. L6pez-Morillas II. Latin American Vanguards: The Art ofContentious Encounters, by Vicky Unruh I2. Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism, by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, translated from the Spanish by Kathleen Ross Facundo CIVILIZATION AND BARBARISM The First Complete English Translation Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Translated from the Spanish by Kathleen Ross, with an Introduction by Roberto Gonzalez Echevarria UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley Los Angeles London Argentina and neighboring countries CHAPTER I Physical Aspect of the Argentine Republic, and the Ideas, Customs, and Characters It Engenders L'etendue des Pampas est si prodigieuse qu'au nord elies son bornees par des bosquets de palmiers, et au midi par des neiges eternelles. Head l The American continent ends to the south in a point, at whose extreme end the Strait ofMagellan is formed. To the west, and at a short distance from the Pacific, the Chilean Andes run parallel to the coast. The land that lies to the east of that chain of mountains and to the west of the Atlantic, following the Rio de la Plata toward the interior upstream along the Uruguay, is the territory formerly called the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, and there, blood is still being shed in order to name it either the Argentine Republic or the Argentine Confedera- tion. To the north are Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, and Bolivia, its alleged borders. The immense expanse of land is entirely unpopulated at its extreme limits, and it possesses navigable rivers that no fragile little boat has yet plowed. The disease from which the Argentine Republic suffers is its OWn expanse: the desert wilderness surrounds it on all sides and insinu- ates into its bowels; solitude, a barren land with no human habitation, in general are the unquestionable borders between one province and another. There, immensity is everywhere: immense plains, immense for- ests, immense rivers, the horizon always Unclear, always confused with the earth amid swift-moving clouds and tenuous mists, which do not +s 4...
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