Freud_2 - Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Lived most of...

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Unformatted text preview: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Lived most of his life in Vienna, Austria Gives his Introductory Lectures from 1915­ 1917 during the middle of WWI Compare your annotations of pages 25 -27 and pages 375-377 Did you underline the same points or arguments as your partner? Why did you underline these arguments or points? What words did you look up? What struck you about the points? What questions did you write in the margins? What is Freud saying? What do you think about his argument/points? How do Freud’s points connect to anything else we’ve read in class or anything else you’ve read, thought about or experienced What are the two “hypotheses of psycho-analysis” that “are an insult to the entire world and have earned its dislike” (25)? 1 The unconscious • “Mental processes are in themselves unconscious and . . . of all mental life it is only certain individual acts and portions that are conscious” (25)* • Psychoanalysis “defines what is mental as processes such as feeling, thinking and willing, and it is obliged to maintain that there is unconscious thinking and unapprehended willing” (Emphasis mine 25­26) *Conscious­­perceiving, apprehending, or noticing with a degree of controlled thought or observation Conscience­­one’s sense of right and wrong as well as the urge to do right Why would people during Freud’s time dislike psychoanalysis’ theory of the unconscious? Socrates: “if one of you . . . says he does care [about the best possible state of his soul] I shall . . . Question him, examine him, and test him, and if I do not think he has attained the goodness that he says he has, I shall reproach him” The Lord said to Cain, ‘Why are you angry, and why has your countenance fallen? 7If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is lurking at the door; its desire is for you, but you must master it.’ Why would people during Freud’s time dislike psychoanalysis’ theory of the unconscious? Before Freud, the model of human beings was that they were fully conscious and rational Based on the notion of the psyche as a unitary soul, independent of the body and fully endowed with the powers of rationality and consciousness This notion originated in Greek and Judeo­Christian thought and was continued into modern philosophy by Descartes, Locke, Hume, Kant, and even Hegel ie. Enlightment thinkers Enlightenment thinkers: Philosophers living in the Age of Enlightenment: 1600­early 1800s What are the two “hypotheses of psycho-analysis” that “are an insult to the entire world and have earned its dislike”? (Second Hypothesis p26) 2. Unconscious instinctual impulses play a part in the cause of nervous disorders and mental disease, but they also contribute to the “highest forms of human creativity” • [I]nstinctual impulses which can only be described as sexual both in the narrower and wider sense of the word, play an extremely large and never hitherto appreciated part in the causation of nervous and mental diseases” [my emphasis], 26 Sexual • In its narrow sense—genital sexuality • In its wider sense—any kind of pleasure obtained from parts of the body What is the “most important source of resistance” according to Freud, to his hypothesis that “instinctual impulses which can only be described as sexual . . . play an extremely large part” in causing nervous disorders and creating human culture? Write a one-to-two sentence summary of the passage: “In my experience…. dangerous.” (26-27) What does a “sexual life” include? Union of the genitals and performance of the sexual act (376) Kissing (376) Masturbation (376) Homosexuality (377) Oral sex (378) Anal sex (378) Defecation and urination (378) Watching a person defecate or urinate (391) Fetishism (378) Necrophilia (378) Voyeurism (379) Exhibitionism (379) Sadism (379) Masochism (379) Fantasizing about sexual situations as a replacement for actual sex (379) “Perverse” adult sexuality– not “right” or “good” sexuality according to Freud and his society “Perverts” whose sexual object deviates from what is the usual picture of the average, that is, genital sexuality, coitus between a man and a woman. These include: • Masturbation? (376) • Homosexuality (377) • Oral sex (378) • Anal sex (378) • A sexual interest in the excretory function (378) • Fetishism—where a part of the body or a piece of clothing rather than the genital is an object of desire(378) • Necrophilia (378) “Perverts” whose sexual aim has been altered from the usual picture of the average. These include (379): • Voyeurism Exhibitionism • Sadism Masochism • Fantasizing about sexual situations as a replacement for actual sex (379) Erotogenic zones—areas of the body whose excitation provides pleasure (389) excitation Genitals (389) Mouth, Lips (389) The anus (390) The sexual life of children The oral stage • Sucking at the mother’s breast (389) • Thumb­sucking (389) The anal stage • Pleasure in evacuating urine and faeces (390) The sadistic­anal stage (406) • Occurs before the age of six • Contrast between the “active” and the “passive” Active­”turns out to be an instinct for mastery which easily passes over into cruelty” Passive­ “attachment to the erotogenic zone of the anal orifice” • “Instincts for looking and for gaining knowledge . . . are powerfully at work” The genital stage The “sexual life of children” : What’s the argument? Sexual life doesn’t emerge suddenly at puberty but develops in phases from infancy to puberty An argument from analogy • “[S]exual life . . . does not emerge as something ready made . . . but passes through a series of successive phases which do not resemble one another . . . like that of a caterpillar into a butterfly” (407) Sexual life -from caterpillar to butterfly • “[S]exual life . . . does not emerge as something ready made . . . but passes through a series of successive phases which do not resemble one another . . . like that of a caterpillar into a butterfly” (407) Freud’s point in describing the sexual life of children Infantile sexuality shares a kinship with sexual perversion (391) Inclinations to perversion have their roots in childhood (385) Thus, we as children are perverts. • Children are “polymorphously perverse” As we mature we learn, or are forced by civilization, at a very early age to repress or sublimate our perversions and/or to organize our sexual instincts around the genitals The Second Hypothesis Of Psychoanalysis . Unconscious instinctual impulses play a part in the cause of nervous disorders and mental disease, but they also contribute to the “highest forms of human creativity” • [I]nstinctual impulses which can only be described as sexual both in the narrower and wider sense of the word, play an extremely large and never hitherto appreciated part in the causation of nervous and mental diseases” [my emphasis], 26 Sexual • In its narrow sense—genital sexuality • In its wider sense—any kind of pleasure obtained from parts of the body What is the “most important source of resistance” according to Freud, to his hypothesis that “instinctual impulses which can only be described as sexual . . . play an extremely large part” in causing nervous disorders and creating human culture? Write a one-to-two sentence summary of the passage: “We believe…. dangerous.” (2627) What is a human being? The Freudian vs the Enlightenment model Human beings are simply perverts who learn, or are forced by civilization at a very early age to repress or sublimate their perversions(the Freudian model) Human beings are fully conscious and rational (the Enlightenment model) The Temptation of St Anthony by Breughel by What’s the difference between the unconscious and the subconscious? Freud's own terms for mentation taking place outside conscious awareness: ► The unconscious­ Mental processes that are not conscious and are repressed • Repression­ the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from one's consciousness and holding or subduing them in the unconscious. The preconscious • Thoughts which are not noticed at the particular moment in question; they may be in the same “room” as consciousness but not noticed by consciousness (see page 366); they are not or are no longer repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious. The subconscious (not a Freudian term) • Informal use of the term 'subconscious' in the Freudian context above thus creates confusion, as it fails to make clear which, the unconscious or the preconscious (if either) is meant. What’s the difference between the unconscious and the pre conscious? The unconscious • is the store of collected information that has been repressed and is not easily brought to the conscious mind. • These memories not recognized by the conscious mind can be memories of trauma, or even simply memories, thought patterns, desires, and sense impressions that remain far below the accessible surface. • Because they are in essence, inaccessible without psychoanalysis, they may drive and control the conscious mind on unseen levels. The preconscious • May be thoughts that are not noticed, but are easily accessible if attention is paid to them. • For instance, you might know someone’s phone number. This information is not stored in your conscious mind, but in your preconscious. • If you think about it, you can produce the phone number, but it isn’t simply floating around in your conscious mind. • You need to direct your attention to memory in order to dredge up the phone number. • Those memories you can recall easily are not conscious unless you pay attention and focus. If we are unaware of the unconscious and its material is inaccessible what is the evidence that it actually exists? According to Freud, psychoanalysis is a science (26) and thus should follow the “scientific method” which involves • the recognition and formulation of a problem • the collection of data through observation and experimentation • and the formulation and testing of hypotheses So what’s Freud’s evidence for the unconscious? Freud’s evidence Freud’s • Parapraxes (slips of the tongue, “Freudian slips”) • Dreams­­'royal road to the unconscious'. • See page 101 • Neuroses Neurosis Neurosis An illness not attributable to any known neurological or organic dysfunction which may include physical symptoms (e.g., hysteria). Neurotic tendencies are common and may manifest themselves as • depression • acute or chronic anxiety, • obsessive­compulsive tendencies • phobias • personality disorders such as narcissism A neurosis is different from psychosis which refers to loss of touch with reality. : Transference Neuroses:Hysteria and Obsessional Neurosis 371 Hysteria—A nervous disorder characterized by: • Convulsions • Paralysis • Disturbances in the visual field • An inability to recognize family members • Hallucinations • An inability to speak one’s native language Obsessional neurosis­ definition pg320 Two case studies of obsessional neurosis as evidence of the unconscious First case study (the woman running back and forth to the table):“Mental processes had therefore been at work in her and the obsessional action was an effect of them; she had been aware of this effect in a normal mental fashion, but none of the mental predeterminants of this effect came to the knowledge of her consciousness” (343) What is the cure for neurotic symptoms? Why does this cure work? In treating a case of hysteria Freud’s mentor, J. Breuer, found a technique for curing a hysterical patient, Anna O. He: freed her from her symptoms; he found a technique for bringing to her consciousness processes which contained the sense of the symptoms, and the symptoms disappeared (346). Why does this technique work? • See passage pg 347 “The construction What does Freud mean when he says “Knowledge is not always the same as knowledge” (348) The doctor’s knowledge and the patients knowledge are not the same The doctor’s telling the patient what unconscious processes determine the obsessional action has no effect The patient him or herself must come to this knowledge “knowledge must rest on internal change” (349) The Talking Cure Free association A patient engages in a spontaneous, logically unconstrained and undirected association of ideas, emotions, and feelings. • “Unreflecting self observation” • “Follow only the surface of . . . [your] consciousness” The obstacle to free association: • Resistance­ The analysand resists bringing out an idea because he thinks the idea is ­too disagreeable or too indiscreet to say ­too unimportant or irrelevant ­nonsensical and need not be said PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT—THE TALKING CURE Freud and his mentor Josef Breuer discovered that patients could be cured simply by talking about the origins of their symptoms, known as the talking cure At first Freud questioned the patient under hypnosis and learned this treatment from his colleague Breuer In the case of Anna O, Breuer discovered that if he made his patient tell him under hypnosis the hidden emotional situation that oppressed her, he could relieve her of her hysterical symptoms. Freud developed the technique of free association as an alternative to hypnosis Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Today The old belief that OCD was the result of life experiences has been weakened before the growing evidence that biological factors are a primary contributor to the disorder. The fact that OCD patients respond well to specific medications that affect the neurotransmitter serotonin suggests the disorder has a neurobiological basis. For that reason, OCD is no longer attributed only to attitudes a patient learned in childhood­­for example, an inordinate emphasis on cleanliness, or a belief that certain thoughts are dangerous or unacceptable. Instead, the search for causes now focuses on the interaction of neurobiological factors and environmental influences, as well as cognitive processes. ­­About.com:Mental Health http://mentalhealth.about.com/cs/ ocd/l/blocd2.htm Resistance Resistance­People are not always fully forthcoming when they free associate, that is, they resist bringing out an idea because they think the idea is 1.Too unimportant 2. Too senseless 3. Irrelevant 4.Distressing Repression:; the exclusion of thoughts or mental impulses from consciousness Repression­ the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from one's consciousness and holding or subduing them in the unconscious. Repression­ the theory that the powerful mental processes which become unconscious to humans are forgotten because they are either alarming or painful or shameful by the standards of the person’s personality. Defense Mechanisms Occur In Everyday Life Defense mechanisms protect us from being consciously aware of a thought or feeling which we cannot tolerate. The defense only allows the unconscious thought or feeling to be expressed indirectly in a disguised form. Defenses may hide any of a variety of thoughts or feelings: anger, fear, sadness, depression, greed, envy, competitiveness, love, passion, admiration, criticalness, dependency, selfishness, grandiosity, helplessness. For examples of defense mechanisms see handout on Course Documents Pick one of the following variety of thoughts and feelings : anger, fear, sadness, depression, greed, envy, competitiveness, love, passion, admiration, criticalness, dependency, selfishness, grandiosity, helplessness. Invent a situation in which a person might want to hide that feeling. Write a dialogue between two people or a conversation among three people demonstrating how that person uses defense mechanisms Include at least three defense mechanisms in your dialogue or conversation Perform the conversation for the class Freud suggests that dream interpretation is scientific (Lecture 6) scientific Three hypotheses about dream interpretation 1 Dreams have a sense(101) 2 Dreams are not somatic but psychical phenomena (122) 3. A dreamer knows what his dream means only he does not know that he knows it and for that reason thinks he does not know it (124) A fourth hypothesis: Freud’s fourth hypothesis about dream interpretation: A psychoanalyst can use free association to interpret a dream; ”when the psychoanalyst asks the dreamer how he arrived at the dream, his first remark is to be looked on as an explanation” (128) My dream My I was in a very long and crooked staircase. I wasn't sure if I was going up or down but when I emerged I was on what I think was the outside platform of a castle. Anyway I was in some high position on a building that had a wide view in front of me, except the view I was looking at was like a Rousseau painting. Below was a river going across my line of sight and above the river were very steeply foreshortened, dark green hills. To the right were columns and columns of cougars arranged symmetrically, not real life cougars, but cougars that looked like the cats in a Rousseau painting. The cougars were painted very primitively:their bodies were all in profile but their heads were turned toward me. In fact while I was looking at them all of the cougars turned their head toward me. The pupils of their eyes were enlarged so that all I could see were the pupils and the pupils were spinning. To the left of the cougars in the foreground a Rousseau­like tiger attacked a man and was eating him. Two terms from Lecture VII Two Manifest dream content/ manifest dream elements—the dream itself; the images in the dream Latent dream thoughts—the concealed material in the dreamer’s unconscious which the manifest dream elements point to and which can be accessed through interpreting those elements Free association, resistance (141-42), and complexes (133) 1.Interview each other Tell the person why you wrote down each idea • Ask the other person why he or she wrote down each • idea Resistance­People are not always fully forthcoming when they free associate, that is, they resist bringing out an idea because they think the idea is A) Too unimportant B) Too senseless C) Irrelevant D).Distressing 2 Ask the person to go over his or her free association; ask him or her if she or he left anything out because of one of the above reasons. Complexes­Things that occur to you in free association are “found to be dependent . . . on groups of strongly emotional thoughts and interests, ‘complexes’”(133) 3. Ask the person if he or she can identify if his or her list of free associations depend on a complex or complexes as defined above Free association is the most important technique for dream Free technique interpretation: interpretation: • Free association in dream interpretation means keeping an idea in mind as a starting point (130), in this case, a particular dream element, and writing down or saying the first thing that comes to mind. • Free association ‘excludes reflection’ (130), that is, it is a spontaneous, unconstrained, and undirected association of ideas, emotions, and feelings. • The first thing that comes to mind is only the first link in free association; you can throw light on that first association by subsequent associations until the link of associations is exhausted (131­133) • Thus, associations to a dream element are not "completely free" but are connected like links on a chain. The technique of free association developed out of the talking cure (see slides above) out • Freud developed this technique when he discovered that through the therapist’s persistence the patient could in his waking state recall all of the things which had before only been made accessible to him under hypnosis. • Discovered he could use it to interpret dreams My dream My I was in a very long and crooked staircase. I wasn't sure if I was going up or down but when I emerged I was on what I think was the outside platform of a castle. Anyway I was in some high position on a building that had a wide view in front of me, except the view I was looking at was like a Rousseau painting. Below was a river going across my line of sight and above the river were very steeply foreshortened, dark green hills. To the right were columns and columns of cougars arranged symmetrically, not real life cougars, but cougars that looked like the cats in a Rousseau painting. The cougars were painted very primitively:their bodies were all in profile but their heads were turned toward me. In fact while I was looking at them all of the cougars turned their head toward me. The pupils of their eyes were enlarged so that all I could see were the pupils and the pupils were spinning. To the left of the cougars in the foreground a Rousseau­like tiger attacked a man and was eating him. Scout attacked by a tiger by Henri Rousseau Rousseau One of the chief characteristics of dreams: Wish fulfillment dreams: “What instigates a dream is a wish, and the fulfillment of that wish is the content of the dream—this is one of the chief characteristics of dreams . . . A dream does not simply give expression to a thought, but represents the wish fulfilled as a hallucinatory experience” (158) My Paraphrase: In lecture VII, Freud gives six examples of manifest dream elements labeled a­f (144­ 149). Look at the manifest dream element and the latent dream thoughts that Freud and his patients come up with( the interpretation after each element) Which dream element best illustrates his claim that the fulfillment of that wish is the content of the dream”(Rank them)? Manifest Dream Element Manifest Latent Dream Thought His brother was in a box [Kasten] ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ The patient free associates: (Kasten ) > (Schrank) box >cupboard >(Schrank sich ein) >to restrict The dreamer’s interpretation: “My brother was restricting himself (148) Freud's interpretation: “I should like my brother to restrict himself: my brother must restrict himself” (159) If all dreams are wish fulfillments, then Freud’s interpretation would be more accurate. What is the difference between children’s dreams as wish fulfillments and adults dreams as wish fulfillments ? fulfillments See page 157, 161­162, 175 Dreams by adults censor and give a distorted expression to adult wishes. (175) Why? Because adults recognize or as they grow up they have been educated to recognize those wishes as “invariably of a reprehensible nature, repulsive from the ethical, aesthetic and social point of view . . . [They] are matters of which one does not venture to think at all or thinks only with disgust” (175) Dreams censor or distort thoughts that “are invariably of a repulsive nature, repulsive from an ethical, aesthetic, or social point of view” (177-78) social Freud lists on pgs 170­171 three ways in which the dream work* censors latent thoughts and thus render manifest dreams as distorted 1. Omission—the dream work leaves out the repulsive part in the manifest dream 2. Modification—the dream work tones down or makes faint the repulsive part in the manifest dream(Freud calls this “displacement” as well; see below) 3. Displacement—instead of representing the repulsive thought directly the dream work puts an allusion to it at the center of the manifest dream *The Dream­Work­­not the dream itself but the psychological process that distorts or censors the latent dream thoughts and transforms them into the manifest dream (210) Dreams censor or distort thoughts that “are invariably of a repulsive nature, repulsive from an ethical, aesthetic, or social point of view” (177-78) social Manifest dream Latent dream thoughts g) ”I regret the money I have spent on my sister’s dowry and my brother’s education” h) I wish my husband was dead” i) “I have sensual desires for my sister” (177­78) The more repulsive the wish the greater the dream censorship/distortion (173-74) dream Most repulsive wish from the unconscious Greatest dream distortion Less repulsive Not repulsive at all Least dream distortion The Dream Work and he Work Of Interpretation (Lecture XI) The dream­work­­not the dream itself but the psychological process that distorts or censors the latent dream thoughts and transforms them into the manifest dream (210) The work of interpretation­”the work . . . which endeavours to arrive at the latent dream from the manifest one. The work of interpretation seeks to undo the dream work” (210) Through the dreamer’s free association and questioning of the dreamer, the work of interpretation . . . The dream work distorts this The latent dream thought (unconscious content, ideas, wishes) ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Gaps or an omission in a dream “love services” 168­172 Faintly or indistinctly remembered (“Channel” 145­ 46) Transformation of thoughts into visual images Condensation Displacement Symbols adopted from culture Reversal of latent dream thoughts Division into parts Senselessness of a part ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ The manifest dream (the actual dream) We can identify the kinds of distortions/censorship the dream work engages in In order to produce this The manifest dream (the actual dream) ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Gaps or an omission in a dream “love services” 168­172 Faintly or indistinctly remembered (“Channel” 145­46) Transformation of thoughts into visual images Condensation Displacement Symbols adopted from culture Reversal of latent dream thoughts Division into parts Senselessness part of a dream ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­The latent dream thought (unconscious content, ideas, wishes) In dream interpretation we begin with this We can use these as guides, interpretive codes in order to discover this A Medical Student in Munich, Germany 1910 The Manifest Dream I was bicycling down the street in Tübingen [a town in Germany] when a brown dachshund rushed up behind me and seized me by the heel. After a little I got off, sat down on a step, and began to hit at the beast, which had bitten firm hold of me (I had no disagreeable feelings either from the bite or from the scene as a whole) Some elderly ladies were sitting opposite me and grinning at me. Then I woke up A report from the student: “I have recently fallen in love with a girl, but only from seeing her in the street, and I have had no means of getting in contact with her. The dachsund might have been the pleasantest way of doing so, especially as i am a great animal lover and I liked this same characteristic in the girl” ( We learn . . .that the girl he was attracted by was always to be seen in the company of this particular dog) Dreams as wish fulfillments: anxiety fulfillment, punishment fulfillment, wishes as infantile Dreams fulfill our wishes The more repulsive the wish the greater the dream distorts or censors the wish The repulsive wish causes distress to the dreamer Sometimes dreams make us anxious • An anxiety dream­ a dream “accompanied by feelings ranging from unpleasurable to severe anxiety”(265) • Sometimes we suffer some punishment in a dream (we’re shot; we fall off a cliff etc) How can dreams that cause us anxiety or that punish us be fulfillments of our wishes? Dreams as wish fulfillments: anxiety fulfillment, punishment fulfillment, wishes as infantile 1 How can dreams that cause anxiety be wish fulfillments? 266­ 1 How can dreams that cause anxiety be wish fulfillments? 266­ 67, 69 2 How can dreams in which we are punished fulfill our wishes? Freud answers this question by arguing that punishment dreams are analogous to the fairytale of the three wishes (268,271) How are they analogous? 3. What does Freud mean when he says that “what is unconscious in mental life is also what is infantile” 261 How does this explain his hypothesis that wishes “that instigate dreams are actively evil and extravagantly sexual”? Look at page 249­250 How is an anxiety dream a wish fulfillment? 266-67, 269 How Dreams fulfill our wishes The more repulsive the wish the greater the dream distorts or censors the wish The repulsive wish causes distress to the dreamer Sometimes the dream­work (the psychological process that distorts dreams) can’t completely distort the repulsive wish (267) It can alter the content of a dream more easily than the affect (the emotion) (267) Thus sometimes the dream work succeeds in distorting the content of the repulsive wish but not the distress the repulsive wish gives to the dreamer (267) Anxiety in a dream might be an expression of something in the dream thoughts “far more distressing than the dream constructed out of them” (266) “An anxiety dream is often the undisguised fulfillment of a wish­not, of course, of an acceptable wish but of a repudiated one” (269) “The generation of anxiety has taken the place of censorship” (269) How can dreams that punish us be wish fulfillments? Illustrated by the story of the three wishes (268 271) Illustrated by the story of the three wishes (268 271) Two opposite forces at work The wife=the dream wish The husband=the dream censorship/distortion The wife (the dream wish) wishes for a couple of sausages The husband (the dream censorship) punishes the wife by wishing that the sausages were hanging on the wife’s nose So if there is a punishment in a dream, the punishment is the dream censorship/distortion punishing the dream wish because it is too repulsive to the dreamer in conscious life “[W]hat is unconscious in mental life is also what is infantile” What is unconscious in adults is the polymorphous perversity, unrestrained hatred, and desire for revenge of their early childhood Dreams know “how to find access to these latent infantile [childhood] experiences” (249) Thus the “actively evil and extravagantly sexual” wishes of our dreams “arise from the past” sometimes from something in the past as adults we were once familiar or conscious of but now repress but more often as early childhood desires (incestual wishes, unrestrained hatred desire for revenge) that we’ve learned to repress because they are repulsive (261) Why do we dream? Why Dreams are not somatic but psychical phenomena (122) • the days residues (262) • The unconscious wishes which most often originate in our childhood (261­62) Both combine to construct a dream (281): • One is the capitalist The infantile unconscious Provides the psychical energy for the construction of the dream • One is the entrepreneur The day’s residues Decide how the psychical energy is to be employed ...
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