FINAL EXAM REVIEW SHEET
HUMAN SPECIES—SINELLI—Spring 2011
YOU WILL NEED TO STUDY THE CHAPTERS AS WELL AS YOUR LECTURE NOTES!
Bring 2 scantrons!
The exam will be more than 100 questions long.
- South African australopithecines:
- Australopithecus africanus
(Taung, Mrs. Ples)-
Raymond Dart/broom, South Africa, 1924, High forehead, Foramen
Magnum anterior found from endocast, gracile build, brain size 405cc, Bipedal, 2.5-2 mya, retained adaptions to climb trees
- Robert brooms 1950, Swartkrans, 2-1 mya, large zygomatic feautures, flat face, saggital crest,
large molar and premolar small incisors and canines
– Mary Leakey, Olduvi Gorge Tanzania, big cheek teeth small interior teeth, u shaped row
prognathiscism , tall broad dished face, saggital crest, 510cc brain, 2.3-1.3 mya, 5ft tall one of biggest robust hominids
- Australopithecus aethiopicus
(Black Skull) – 1985 Richard Leakey and Alan Walker, West Turkana Kenya, 410 cc brain,
Huge cheek teeth, 1
robust hominid, black because of manganese dirt, Robust = bigger, have sagittal crest, dish shaped face,
prognathic, flaring zygomatic arches, earliest robust (2.7-2.3 mya) and most robust hominid, appearance of concave face, features
related to available food
– Asfaw and Tim white discover 1991, 2.5 mya in Awash Ethiopia, garhi = surprise, 450 cc brain,
large anterior and posterior teeth, long legs and forearms, Probably is link between austrolapithecus and Homo, Humans no
descendents of garhi, evidence garhi was first with stone tools, associated with mammal bones and cutmarks, tool use shows they ate
meat, diggers, first to eat meat?, meat important for brain development,
What are the major differences between robust and gracile australopithecines?
-comes down to diet
-from neck down not different
-all maintain arboreal characteristic
Trends in hominid evolution: increasing encephalization and decreasing dentition
2.4 – 1.6 Mya
H. Habilis at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
Distribution of across Africa
When first discovered and by whom? Leakeys at Olduvai Gorge Tanzania 1960
What does the name mean? Handy man
Type of tools used, brain size 631 cc,
Famous specimens: OH 24 “Twiggy”, OH 7
What did the postcranial remains suggest?
That they had longer arms, shorter legs than humans and still spent some of their
time in trees.
The Oldowan stone tool kit: