Anthro 41a notes

Anthro 41a notes - The Orient Express Claims that...

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“The Orient Express” Claims that civilization began first in Mesopotamia and then went west Civilization improved as it moved west. Therefore, to the east and south, people were “uncivilized” William Blaut disagrees with it perspective generally claims that there were four great civilizations in the past 1) Babylon (in Iran) 2) Medio-Persia (in Iran) 3) Alexander the Great (Greeks) 4) Julius Ceaser, Pompei (Romans) The Bible focused on four empires that profoundly influenced the Jews 1) Babylon – destroyed Solomon’s temple, took Jews captive 2) Persians – allowed Jews to rebuild temple, return to Jerusalem 3) Greeks – ruled the Jews until the Jewish rebellion 4) Romans – reconquered the Jews under Julius Ceasar, Romans destroyed their temple again Blaut claims that many scholars have claimed that Europe was somehow innately better than the rest of the world Domestication of Barley - Rice - Wheat - Cattle – Chickens Rice – Yangzi River 9000 BC Cattle – Nile River 8000 BC Chickens – Indus River 6000 BC 300 Greeks vs Persians 300 refers to an army of 300 Greeks from Sparta (leader – Leonidas) Persians led by King Xerxes Historiography - “Writing of History”
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Western Historiography is often a “Metanarrative” Blaut warns that western historiographic metanarratives often telescope history The Western Metanarrative of History 1. Cities established in Mesopotamia – birthplace of civilization 2. Formation of the Babylonian Empire 3. Persian Empire 4. Greek Empire 5. Roman Empire 6. Medeival Period – fall of Rome – Dark Ages – 1000 year period 7. 8. European Colonization – Europe “spread” civilization to the rest of the world “Signs” of Civilization 1. Cities – Populous urban centers 2. Intensive agriculture 3. Writing System for language 4. Use of metallurgy In 5 th Century BC Greece Socrates Anayagoras – Theory of the Atom Pythagoras Persia The old beliefs in polytheism were being replaced by monotheism – Zoroastrianism India Buddhism emerged in India during the 5 th century BC China Confucius
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Politics in 4 th Century BC Persian rules – a kind of God/King – the King’s will was law Greeks – Monarchies, Tyrannies, Republics India – several republics, north of the Ganges River, both nobility & guild members voted/participated in these Indian republics, in the Indian kingdoms immediately south of the Ganges River (Khoshala & Maghada), the rajas (kings) could not rule by will – they had to obey laws which they had not personally created The Middle Ages – Medieval Period Begin with fall of Western Roman Empire 476 AD Until the renaissance period about 1000 years Western historiographers often regard the Middle Ages as a period of cultural stagnation Key Dates in Video
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Anthro 41a notes - The Orient Express Claims that...

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