DOC 2 Final SG Thinkers

DOC 2 Final SG Thinkers - DOC 2 Final Thinkers/Themes 1....

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DOC 2 Final Thinkers/Themes 1. Thucydides: might makes right a. Might makes right; it’s right to submit to others’ powers if they are stronger than you are because it’s reasonable to do so b. Self-interest injustice (Athenians were focused on their own interests when they tried to convince the Melians to be overruled) 2. MLK: civil disobedience, just vs. unjust laws, nonviolent resistance, direct action a. Civil disobedience – it is one’s moral responsibility to disobey discriminatory laws b. Unjust laws degrade humanity, and majority usually compels minority groups to obey majority group, but majority does not bind to themselves (double standard) c. Minorities are suppressed when they don’t have a say in writing law; segregation laws are unjust d. A just law is the law of God; it is fair, moral, good, and one’s moral responsibility to obey e. Equality for all f. Oppressed should take direct action against unjust laws to achieve equality thru nonviolent resistance g. Natural law – law that does not exclude or harm anyone 3. Locke: State of Nature, social contract, divine right of the kings a. State of Nature provides set of rights for everyone to access and use as long as it doesn’t go past morality b. State of equality – nobody has power over another c. Social contract – make a deal with everyone else in political society d. God leaves resources for everyone to use and enjoy and gave men a reason to use all their resources to create conveniences in life thru labor e. Earth = property of ppl in common to use for survival and benefit f. Spoilage – people can use their resources and make what they can with it, but the limit is spoilage; in other words, you should not let things rot because you are being wasteful g. Civil society – law, judge, executive; gov’t is necessary b/c property needs higher central authority to protect them h. Divine right of the kings 4. Tocqueville: centralized vs. decentralized administration a. Centralized administration is concentrated in one place of direction of local/regional interests – he thinks this is bad because it destroys local spirits and works against the sense of active citizenship, making people passive (one may not be familiar with laws from states far away, and therefore, would be less likely to follow) b. Centralized government is necessary for prosperity; centralized authority is produced in a single cohesive policy
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c. Governmental centralization good because it involves a collective force of
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DOC 2 Final SG Thinkers - DOC 2 Final Thinkers/Themes 1....

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