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# cse91_vb - CSE91 computa2on Vineet Bafna UCSD Bafna Given a...

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11/5/09 Bafna CSE91 Early detec2on of cancers using computa2on Vineet Bafna, UCSD

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11/5/09 Bafna A combinatorial puzzle Given: a graph with nodes laid out on a line Select a subset of nodes 2 nodes that are connected by an edge cannot both be in the subset No adjacent pair is apart by more than 1 2 3 5 4 7 9 8 11 10 6
How hard is the puzzle Number of nodes in the graph: n (5000) Total length of the line : k (500) Minimum number of nodes: Number of ways of selecting subsets 11/5/09 Bafna k n k = 5000 500 = 10 500

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Today We talk about smarter ways to solve this puzzle And, we show how to use the solution for early detection of cancer. 11/5/09 Bafna
Gleevec? 11/5/09 Bafna

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11/5/09 Bafna The Gleevec story The Food and Drug Administration approved a new kind of anti-cancer drug yesterday after a swift, two-and-a-half- month review of clinical data. Drugs accepted for priority review usually take six months to approve. Gleevec's quick approval rests on its immediate and striking results in treating patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia, one of the four main types of leukemia. In one trial of 54 patients, Gleevec caused their blood counts to revert to normal in more than 90 percent of cases and cancerous cells to disappear altogether in 13 percent, with generally few side e ects. …Gleevec was the ''first molecularly targeted drug'' and showed ''the incredible value of developing a drug against a target'' when the errant component of a cancer cell could be identified.
Cancer? In normal cells, when the DNA is damaged beyond repair, the cells commit `suicide’ (apoptosis) In cancer, these cells proliferate, invade other tissues. 11/5/09 Bafna

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11/5/09 Bafna The Science behind Gleevec Fusions observed in leukemia, lymphoma, and sarcomas “Philadelphia Translocation” Drugs target this fusion protein
What did we learn? Something in the DNA of a tumor cell changes.

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cse91_vb - CSE91 computa2on Vineet Bafna UCSD Bafna Given a...

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