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15:21 Capturing water from snow and ice melt is expensive and difficult Mountains serve as natural storage for water Selling Our Future     1. Reasons for collapse of earlier civilizations a. High Soil Salinity – Over irrigation (Sumerians) i. Decreased crop yield ii. Starvation b. Droughts over a period of about 200 years (Mayans) i. Soil erosion – soil less fertile ii. starvation 2. Could this happen today? a. NO i. Multiple sources of food ii. GMOs developed to deal b. YES i. US depends on Great Plains 1. Aquifer depleting – Expensive to pump it up from a lower water table ii. Technology is a short term solution iii. Still very vulnerable to outbreaks iv. Less well off areas very vulnerable
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3. What is undermining our food economy? 4. Are fluctuating food prices a new phenomenon? a. No, but this is different; more of a trend than following environmental changes 5. Signs of tightening food situation? Supply vs. Demand a. Higher food prices b. More starving people 6. What is pushing demand for food? a. Growing Population b. Increasing fuel use i. Using grains for bio-fuels c. Feeding livestock **Why is it that eating lower in the food pyramid more efficient than eating higher   on the food pyramid?  90% of available energy is lost in conversion from producer  to primary consumer 7. What is curbing supplies of grain? 1. Loss of cropland due to urbanization 2. Land degradation i. Advancing deserts  3. Falling water tables 4. Rising sea levels 5. Heat waves 6. Melting glaciers 7. Diverting water to cities rather than to farmers
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8. Global trends that impact world food prices? a. Lots of automobiles that need fuel i. Carbon ii. Fuels that use grains b. Losing productivity in land i. Soil erosion c. Falling water tables d. Climate change e. Overfishing f. Advancing deserts g. Losing land for crops h. Diverting water to cities i. Can’t squeeze much more out of technology 9. What solutions are offered to reverse trends in (8)? 10. What strategies are being used by various countries in the face of rising  food prices? a. Buying land in other countries i. E.g. Saudi Arabia – Sudan ii. E.g. China - Congo iii. Living beyond their means; No land for agriculture iv. Using water supplies v. Don’t know how many agreements have been signed
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vi. Countries buying land send people for jobs ; don’t use locals 11. Role of market in world food prices? 12. What is Plan B and what are its components? 13.
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