Outline Test 4 - SECTION 4-1: LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT I....

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SECTION 4-1: LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT A. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE PRODUCTION & COMPREHENSION – sentences (Serious scholars read books). Phrases (Serious scholars) (read books). Propositions (Scholars are serious. Scholars read books. Subject predicate). SPEECH SOUNDS – phonemes. These are all sounds humans can make. WORD UNITS – morphemes (smallest units). Small words, prefixes and suffixes. SENTENCE UNITS – sentences and phrases. Structured and productive. C. EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ON COMPREHENSION & PRODUCTION – is like additional knowledge about the situation that adds another layer of meaning. If you know what you are talking about ahead of time, it adds a little more information even if it isn’t written on the page. II. DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE A. WHAT IS ACQUIRED? PHONEMES & THEIR COMBINATION – there are thousands of combinations. As babies grow they start to reduce the amount of phonemes used to the ones spoken to them. At a year and a half they know about 15 words and overextend concepts. At age 6 they know about 15,000 words and acquire around 10 words a day since one and a half. WORDS & CONCEPTS – with age, words and sentences become more and more grammatical and sensible. FROM PRIMITIVE TO COMPLEX SENTENCES – just learn as you go. Parents, tv, etc. B. LEARNING PROCESSES IMITATION & CONDITIONING – earlier days people thought it was just imitation. Conditioning, simple learning, reinforcing things. Mistakes are easily corrected. HYPOTHESIS TESTING – don’t worry about operating principles slide for the test. Kids do things and pick up languages on their own. C. INNATE FACTORS RICHNESS OF INNATE KNOWLEDGE – every culture goes through this stage, even deaf kids and sign language. Salinas had a deaf kid and they had a sign language interpreter. They needed his notes to prepare because they had to learn sign language later in life and weren’t as fast as the kid that learned it from birth. CRITICAL PERIODS - 1ST YEAR OF LIFE IS ESSENTIAL FOR ACQUIRING THE PROPER SET OF PHONEMES IN NATIVE LANGUAGE. EARLY CHILDHOOD IS ESSENTIAL FOR ACQUIRING FACILITY IN A 2ND LANGUAGE. EARLY CHILDHOOD IS ALSO ESSENTIAL FOR ACQUIRING SYNTAX (EX. DEAF KIDS & ASL). OTHER SPECIES? – animals can learn to make signs that have some meaning. They combine the signs however in way that are much different than that of humans. EXPERT CONSENSUS IS
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NO FOR GORILLAS & COMMON CHIMPANZEES. A MAYBE FOR PYGMY CHIMPANZEES (BONOBOS). CHOMSKY (1991): IF AN ANIMAL HAD A CAPACITY AS BIOLOGICALLY ADVANTAGEOUS AS LANGUAGE BUT SOMEHOW HADN'T USED IT UNTIL NOW, IT WOULD BE AN EVOLUTIONARY MIRACLE, LIKE FINDING AN ISLAND OF HUMANS WHO COULD BE TAUGHT TO FLY. SECTION 4-2: INTELLIGENCE
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This note was uploaded on 08/29/2011 for the course ECON 306k taught by Professor Krasner during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Outline Test 4 - SECTION 4-1: LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT I....

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