A. Learning: A durable change in
due to experience
B. Memory: The means by which past experience is drawn on to guide or direct
in the present.
What THEY aren't (things which influence performance separate from learning or memory):
fatigue, attention, motivation, maturation.
II. Some Types of Learning
A. Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning (involuntary responses)
organism (animal or person
) learns a predictive relationship between two external
stimuli; the presentation of the first specific stimulus predicts the imminent following
presentation of the second specific stimulus
Story – Pavlov sets up experiment with dogs. When the bell rings, food comes in, and they collect
saliva. As time goes, the bell rings and the dogs salivate before the food gets there.
1. Acquisition –
the initial learning of the predictive relationship between stimuli.
Learning it. Picking it up, understanding this particular relationship. In this, the animal or person
learns the relationship that predicts between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned
stimulus. In this example, it is the dogs salivating when they hear the bell because they know
food is coming.
2. Extinction –
After acquisition, should the CS be presented repeatedly alone, without the
UCS following, eventually the CR will cease to be elicited. This process is
more relationship. The experiment is over. It is the conditioned stimulus alone. In this example,
the bell rings, but no more food comes.
3. Spontaneous Recovery –Give a new memory for something, not necessarily erasing the old
one. In this example, the bell will become a better predictor the dogs don’t get food instead of
getting it. The memory of the bell giving food is not completely erased though. After a while, you
will be able to start over with the experiment. The memory trait that is the strongest is the most
recent one, in this example, not getting food when the bell rings.
4. Stimulus Generalization/Discrimination –
, stimuli with similar
sensory qualities to the CS may elicit the CR, essentially by mistake.
Is a phenomenon that occurs in part because there were alien stimuli or signals. For example,
training a dog to a specific tone: he hears it and expects to be fed. The next day you play another
tone on another bell, and the dog salivates. Although he is not trained to this sound, he salivates
because it is similar. Later, he will learn to tell the difference, or be able to discriminate between
5. Higher Order Conditioning –
Higher order conditioning
is a phenomenon that Pavlov
used to explain how a series of conditioned responses to a succession of stimuli may be
Happens when your conditioned stimulus (CS) goes through a lot of repetition and is strongly