Psychology Outline Test 1

Psychology Outline Test 1 - PART ONE INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY I...

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PART ONE: INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY I. Psychology: Its relationship to other fields. II. Psychology: In general A. Foci of Research 1) social – interpersonal behavior, which means behavior in an individual and how they interact at different times with different people 2) experimental – involves people or animals in basic perception, sensation, learning, and memory research. They are interested in the mind, not the brain. 3) physiological – concerned with nervous system and hormones. Physiological is concerned with behavior. 4) cognitive – higher mental processes, reasoning and problem solving, creativity. 5) personality research – individual consistency in behavior 6) psychometrics – pen and paper tests that are accurate and reliable and measure exactly what you want to be measured B. Some Dominant Research Perspectives 1) psychoanalytic- founded by Freud. Unconscious processes influence your behavior and psychological state 2) phenomenological (also humanistic) – founded by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Says that the conscious mind is in charge. Agrees with Freud that the beginnings of psychological problems are planted in childhood, but conscious mind is in charge. 3) Cognitive – tries to find what leads to a problem. 4) Behavioral – behavior is most important 5) biological – says something about behavior can be inherited. 6) evolutionary – says that certain psychological traits are inherited and evolve over time genetically. C. A Rough Historical Timeline 1) psychology began 1879 2) Fechner developed psychophysics 3) Wundt started first psychology lab 4) Freud – the interpretation of dreams 5) Binet and Simon – first IQ test
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6) Wertheimer – gesalt 7) Watson – behaviorism 8) Tolman – purposive behaviorism 9) Skinner – neobehaviorism 10) Rogers – humanistics 11) Chomsky et al - cognitive III. Some Philosophical Views Which Shaped Science A. Determinism – actions determined by past events B. Positivism – considers only objective facts, no subjectivity C. Materialism – all things explainable by physical terms D. Reductionism – understand the parts, understand the whole E. Empiricism – knowledge via sensory experience/observation IV. Some Major Figures and Movements in Psychology A. Philosophical Roots 1. Descartes – philosopher, mathematician, Cartesian coordinate system. Said there were ideas you create/derive from experience but also innate ideas, which you are born with, you never learned, such as ideas of God, self, perfection, infinity, higher nature. 2. Locke – philosopher and political scientist. Social Contract – how people should interact, as Jefferson used this to write the Declaration of Independence. Advocate of empiricism (learn things by experimentation). Believed Descartes was wrong about innate ideas and believed people were born with a blank slate. He had nothing to do with psychology. Innate ideas are learned so early on it seems like you’ve always known them (Aristotle’s tabula rasa).
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Psychology Outline Test 1 - PART ONE INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY I...

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