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Psychology Test 4 - I LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION A ASPECTS OF...

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I. LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION A. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE Language is structured and productive. PRODUCTION & COMPREHENSION: Sentence (Serious scholars read books) Phrase: (serious scholars) (read books) Proposition: (scholars are serious) (scholars read books) B. LEVELS OF LANGUAGE: UNITS & PROCESSES SPEECH SOUNDS (Phonemes) ~40 words in English, 100 possible sounds WORD UNITS (Morphemes) ~40,000 vocabulary SENTENCE UNITS: sentence and phrases, structured and productive C. EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ON COMPREHENSION & PRODUCTION you can tell what the general idea is about, but once the answer is given to you, the text becomes much clearer. II. DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE A. WHAT IS ACQUIRED? from birth to age one, all the phonemes are acquired. From age one to two, babies at age 1.5 have a vocabulary of 15 and overextend concepts by using them over again (“puppy”). They also use 2-3 word sentences. Ages 2-3 is when they learn better grammar. Ages 4, you sound like a little adult. Age 6 has a vocabulary of 15,000 words and average 10 words a day since ages 1.5 – 6. PHONEMES & THEIR COMBINATION: phonemes are all learned at young age, but gradually narrow to the most used. WORDS & CONCEPTS: words and concepts increase with age, along with grammar. FROM PRIMITIVE TO COMPLEX SENTENCES: learn through environment B. LEARNING PROCESSES IMITATION & CONDITIONING Imitation is part of where children obtain words, but not primary way (“all gone milk”) Conditioning helps also, but correction rarely helps (“nobody don’t like me”) HYPOTHESIS TESTING 1. look for change in words 2. look for grammatical markers to indicate change of meaning 3. avoid exceptions 4. pay attention to the end of the word 5. pay attention to order of words, prefix, and suffix. 6. avoid interruptions or rearrangement of words. C. INNATE FACTORS RICHNESS OF INNATE KNOWLEDGE: every child goes through the same acquisition and stages of language at the same time. CRITICAL PERIODS: 1 st year is critical for phonemes. 2 nd language learning is best to learn before adolescences stage. Early childhood is important for syntax.
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OTHER SPECIES ? Animals may learn sign too, but it doesn’t make a lot of sense.
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