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Exam 1 Review - 1 NUTRITION 202 EXAM 1 REVIEW Key Nutrition...

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NUTRITION 202 EXAM 1 REVIEW Key Nutrition Concepts- 1 People eat for many reasons – taste (primary reason) , habit, tradition & convenience are often more important than nutrition or health Nutrients - chemicals body needs for growth, maintenance & repair of tissues Six Classes of Nutrients - Water, carbohydrate, lipid, protein, vitamin & mineral Essential nutrients - cannot be made in sufficient quantities by our bodies, must be in the diet Organic substances contain Carbon & Hydrogen Phytochemicals are not nutrients, but contain health benefits from plants. Macronutrients contribute energy & include carbohydrate, fat and protein Micronutrients do not contribute energy & include vitamins and minerals Water is the most important nutrient in our food and bodies & is largest component in both Nutrient needs are variable depending on age, stage of growth, genetics, body size, gender and illness or health status Nutrients function at the cellular level. Bodies like homeostasis (constant conditions) Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) goals include: Estimated Average Requirements - sufficient for 1/2 healthy population Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are established for normal healthy individuals Adequate Intakes- not enough data to establish RDA Tolerable Upper Intake Levels - maximum safe level for some nutrients which can be toxic at excessive levels Goal of good diet is to create health not risk factors for chronic disease Both deficiencies and toxicities start at cellular level then progress to affect tissues, organs then whole bodies Humans are remarkable adaptable, but poor habits can overwhelm bodies. Malnutrition can include both under & over nutrition. High risk groups for under-nutrition include childbearing women, children, elderly and poor. Good diets include adequacy(all nutrients), variety, balance and moderation. Nutrition and Health – 2 Good diet includes Variety, Balance and Moderation Portion control in U S is out of control Lifestyles are too sedentary Causes of chronic disease include diet, exercise, environmental exposures, genetics and health care. We can control diet and exercise better than the other factors Most common chronic disease killers are heart disease, cancer, strokes and diabetes which are all influenced by diet. Sodium, fat and sugar are too high in US diet 1
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Calcium, fiber, iron, fruits and vegetables are too low in many US diets Changing diets changes chronic disease development rates according to epidemiological studies Dietary Guidelines by U S Dept Agriculture (USDA) recommends healthy diets ABC's of Good Health Aim for fitness (healthy weight & daily physical activity) Build a healthy base (use Pyramid in planning, eat lots of plant foods & keep foods safe) Choose sensibly (low fat, saturated fat and cholesterol & limit sugar, salt & alcohol) Nutrient density refers to foods that provide a lot of nutrients relative to their Kcal -it is especially important in Kcal and weight control diets.
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