Exam 2 Review

Exam 2 Review - 1 Exam 2 Review NUTR 202 12 Carbohydrates...

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Exam 2 Review NUTR 202 12 – Carbohydrates Simple sugars – small sweet molecules that are readily absorbed and all are readily converted to glucose in liver Monosaccharides – single molecules Glucose – blood sugar needed by brain and blood cells Fructose – fruit sugar Glactose – ½ of milk sugar Disaccharides double molecules Sucrose – table sugar = glucose + fructose Maltose – grain sugar = glucose + glucose Lactose – milk sugar = glucose + glactose Simple sugars should not provide more than 10-25%of calories Sugar alcohols are very sweet, but do not cause tooth decay , but can cause diarrhea when used in large amounts – includes xylitol, manitol and sorbitol Artificial sweeteners are intensely sweet in very small quantities and most are safe at low doses used but do not replace all functions of sugar – i.e. browning and bulk in bakery items. Saccharine was original artificial sweetener was once banned as cancer causing but only had that effect at very high doses Aspartame (Nutrasweet) – is bad for Phenylketoneuria sensitive individuals with an inherited disease that prevents utilization of amino acid phenylalanine Sucralose (Spenda) made by chlorine on sugar molecule is good for baking Acesulfame K (Sunnette) is also safe in small doses used ordinarily Cyclomate is still banned in US as cancer causing Complex Carbohydrates (Starches and Glycogen) – long chains of glucose units = polysaccharides – should provide about 50 % of calories Glycogen – Body storage of glucose in muscle and liver cells Fiber – not digested by humans but improves GI motility & prevents constipation – includes cellulose, gums, pectin, psyllium, gels Daily Intake should be 20-35 g but most US diets are 1/2 this much When increasing fiber, do so gradually with plenty of fluids Beans, cereals fruits and vegetables are good sources of fiber Soluble Fiber – slows glucose absorption and reduces fat absorption Glycemic Index is a measure of the rise of blood glucose compared to that obtained with ingestion of 50 g of glucose. Only proven negative of sugars other than extra calories is that sugars cause tooth decay especially with sticky foods, by providing food for acid producing bacteria in plaque that erode tooth enamel. Fluoride in water and tooth paste hardens teeth and prevents tooth decay Baby bottle caries are from prolonged exposure to sweet foods – upper baby teeth decay first 1
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13 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes – lack of insulin production – requires careful balance of carbohydrates, insulin shots and exercise (10% of diabetics) may be an autoimmune disease or result of a virus, or specific medications Type 2 diabetes tracks with overweight, obese, inactive people – it may involve lack of sufficient insulin production or insulin resistance of individual cells – high blood fats and increased blood pressure track with the high blood sugars (90% of US diabetics) – is also genetic and may be treated by blood sugar control, diet, exercise and oral medications. Heart disease and circulatory problems are major
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2008 for the course NUTR 202 taught by Professor Talley during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Exam 2 Review - 1 Exam 2 Review NUTR 202 12 Carbohydrates...

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