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Exam 3 Review - 1 Exam 3 Review NUTR 202 23 – Minerals...

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Exam 3 Review NUTR 202 23 – Minerals Minerals are specific single atoms that track through body unchanged. Many are charged and may act as: Cofactors – components of enzymes and proteins that cause thing to happen Electrolytes – maintain proper charges and amounts of body fluids Since minerals are reactive (charged) they may form stable complexes that are not easily absorbed – ie Zinc is bound to phytates in plant foods, but is readily absorbed from meats. Bioavailability of minerals in foods varies a lot (i.e. amount available for target tissue to use) Deficiencies and toxicities are both possible Calcium – 99% is in bones and teeth, but 1% in blood is critical. Bones and teeth act as bank for 1% critical Calcium in blood. Bones and teeth are hard but not static tissues – constantly undergoing remodeling (breakdown/buildup) processes. Teeth – Fluoride combines with Calcium and Phosphorous to mineralize bones and teeth making them hard. Osteoporosis is condition of porous fragile bone resulting from loss of minerals especially Calcium – affects 44 million Americans Peak bone mass is built by age 30 and declines after that – particularly after menopause in women. Adequate Calcium intake with Vitamin D can prevent osteoporosis. Most in US consume too little Calcium and too much Phosphorous from cola drinks and meats Risk factors for osteoporosis include: Female Post menopause Small thin body size Deficient Calcium and/or Vitamin D Smoking and/or alcohol intake Inactivity Genetic Most Americans do not consume enough Calcium, especially women. Iron deficiency is most common mineral deficiency in US and World affecting primarily women and children and causing anemia: Weakness Fatigue Short attention span Irritable Susceptible to infection 1
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Women need more than men due to monthly blood losses. Children need more due to growth stresses. Iron absorption varies a lot. Beef, liver and prune juice are good food sources . Most plant iron is tightly bound by phytates or oxalic acid. Toxicity – iron supplements are most common poisoning for children and can be fatal. Excess iron is not easily excreted and many US men get too much. Sodium is essential but most in US get too much table salt. Sodium and Potassium work to maintain water balance in humans Some people are salt sensitive and develop hypertension from excessive sodium intake. Majority of people are not salt sensitive. Risk factors for hypertension – major public health problem in US: Obesity Genetics High sodium consumption, especially in slat sensitive individuals Inactivity Treatment for Hypertension Achieve appropriate weight DASH diet – Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension – lots of plant foods, less sodium, low fat dairy .
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