OB-WK6 dq's - 1. Designing Effective Organizations Describe...

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1. Designing Effective Organizations Describe the four characteristics common to all organizations, explain the difference between closed and open systems, and contrast the military/mechanical, biological, and cognitive systems metaphors for organizations. According to Kinicki and Kreitner (2009), the four characteristics common to all organizations are 1) coordination of effort, 2) a common goal, 3) division of labor and, 4) a hierarchy of authority. The coordination of effort is achieved through formulation of and enforcement of policies, rules, and regulations. Division of labor occurs when the common goal is pursued by individuals performing different but related tasks. Lastly, the hierarchy of authority is a control mechanism dedicated to ensuring the right people do the right things at the right time (pg 378). The difference between closed and open systems is simply explained by Kinicki and Kreitner. Closed systems are a self-sufficient entity and “closed” to the surrounding environment; whereas, opens systems are highly dependent upon constant interaction with the environment for survival. Kinicki and Kreitner (2009) contrast the military/mechanical, biological, and cognitive systems metaphors for organizations based on the open and closed systems perspective. “Historically, management theorists downplayed the environment as they used closed-
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This note was uploaded on 08/29/2011 for the course BUSINESS 101 taught by Professor All during the Spring '11 term at Ashford University.

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OB-WK6 dq's - 1. Designing Effective Organizations Describe...

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