Ch-5-Design-Xs-and-Os

Ch-5-Design-Xs-and-Os - Designs for Research: The Xs and Os...

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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 1 Designs for Research: The Xs and Os Framework Research Methods for Public Administrators Dr. Gail Johnson
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 2 Steps in the Research Process Planning 1. Determining Your Questions 2. Identifying Your Measures and Measurement Strategy 3. Selecting a Research Design 4. Developing Your Data Collection Strategy 5. Identifying Your Analysis Strategy 6. Reviewing and Testing Your Plan
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 3 Narrow Definition of Design While sometimes the overall research plan is called a “design,” this discussion focuses on the narrow definition The narrow definition focuses on 3 design elements
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 4 Three Design Elements 1. When measures are taken After Before and After Multiple times before and/or after 2. Whether there are comparison groups 3. Whether there is random assignment to comparison groups
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 5 Three Broad Categories for Research Design Experimental Quasi-Experimental Non-Experimental
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 6 Experimental Design The best design to use for cause-effect questions because it rules out most other possible explanations for the results obtained. Random assignment assures that the two groups are comparable.
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 7 The Xs and Os Framework R indicates R andom assignment to the treatment group or the comparison group O is the O bservation, that is, the measure for the dependent variable Examples: earnings, weight, test scores, stock market trading, reported crime rate, kilowatt hours, reported discrimination, poverty rate, number of people unemployed, GDP, etc) The researchers are looking to see if these measures change because of the treatment
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 8 The Xs and Os Framework X is the treatment, which may be a: A particular medication A particular exercise regimen A program (eg. Head Start Program or Troubled Asset Relief Program) An independent variable (eg.economic news stories, sunspot activity, a change in daylight savings hours, etc)
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 9 Example: Which approach works better in learning statistics: using computer software or calculating formulas by hand? Experimental Design: Create Comparison Groups: Group 1: X: computers to do formulas Group 2: no computers R andomly assign students into 2 groups O bserve: test scores before and after
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 10 Using the Xs and Os Framework R O 1 X O 2 R O 1 O 2 R indicates R andom assignment O is the O bservation (test scores). Testing statistical knowledge before and after X is the treatment (in this case the use of computers)
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Dr. Johnson, www.ResearchDemy 11 Experimental Design: Xs and Os Variation: No Pre-Measure Sometimes it is not possible to have a pre-measure For example: I am testing to see whether a welfare to work training program results in people getting jobs with above poverty wages. I
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Ch-5-Design-Xs-and-Os - Designs for Research: The Xs and Os...

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