ch-8-Data-Collection-II-Focus-Groups

ch-8-Data-Collection-II-Focus-Groups - Data Collection...

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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 1 Data Collection Toolkit II: Interviews and Focus Groups Research Methods for Public Administrators Dr. Gail Johnson
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 2 Collecting Data From People Opinions, perceptions, stories Use interviews, focus groups, surveys Only people can tell you what the think or believe But what people say they do is not necessarily what they actually do
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 3 Collecting Data From People Risk of bias: social desirability response Say what they think researcher wants to hear or what they believe is socially appropriate Especially true if asking about socially stigmatized or illegal behaviors Remember: hypothetical questions are not necessarily a reliable predictor of actual behavior
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 4 General Guidelines When gathering data from people: Keep it simple, clear, easy, short Respect respondents time and intelligence Tell them how they were selected and why their participation is important
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 5 Ethical Issues Do no harm. Do no harm. Do no harm. Do not force people to participate in any study: they have the right to refuse to participate and to end their participation at any time. Obtain proper consents. Respect people’s privacy rights. When you promise confidentiality, mean it. You may need to obtain human subjects approval.
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 6 Option: Closed-ended Questions To what extent, if at all, has this workshop been useful in helping you to learn how to evaluate your program? Little or no extent Some extent Moderate extent Great extent Very great extent No opinion
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 7 Advantages of Closed-ended Questions Best when very specific data is required Results are reliable: everyone was asked the same question and answers Easy to analyze
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 8 Option: Semi-structured Question In what ways, if at any, has this workshop been useful to you? They then answer in their own words Sometimes it is set by first asking a Yes or No question and then followed up with a probe: “can you tell me more” kind of probe. Did you find the workshop useful? If yes, “what was most useful?” If no: “what would have made it useful to you?”
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 9 Advantages of Open-Ended Questions: Captures participants views in their own words Enables clarification of questions if participant does not understand Used in focus groups Often useful in the early phases of a research project when researchers are not sure what it is they want to know and/or how to ask the questions
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe 10 Face-to-face Options Interviews Dynamic process of gathering information Personal interaction between people Can be structured or semi-structured Focus groups Dynamic process of gathering information Small group interaction (6-12 people) Semi-structured
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Dr. G. Johnson, www.ResearchDe
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ch-8-Data-Collection-II-Focus-Groups - Data Collection...

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