Axial skeleton (skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum)
Appendicular skeleton (appendages)
Flat bones (protect vital organs)Long bones (in limbs, assc. with locomotion)
Short bones (shock
Irregular bones (variety of functions, ie. Vertebral column)
In increasing size of projections or processes, tubercle, tuberosity, trochanter. Spine (sharp, pointed), head
(enlarged, rounded articular surface at bone end), facet (raised, flat articular surface). Condyle (enlarged,
knuckle-shaped, rounded, articular surface), epicondyle (projection above condyle). Fovea (smaller than
fossa, depression), fossa (depression), perforations (allow soft tissue passage), Foramen (hole in bone),
canal (tubular hole in bone), fissure (narrow cleft on/between bones).
Smooth (involuntary, autonomic sys.), Skeletal, Cardiac muscles. Differentiated by striations, or lack
thereof. Belly (thick fleshy part), tendon (connective tissue of muscles, long and narrow, or flattened and
sheet-like; aponeurosis). Superficial fascia (connective, muscle enveloping tissue), deep fascia (forms
sheaths around muscles and deeper structures), Ligaments (connective tissue of bones/skeletal parts).
Muscles, bones, joints (class I, II, III levers). Class I: fulcrum is situated between Resistance (load) and
Power. Class II: resistance is situated between fulcrum and power. Class III: Power is located between
fulcrum and resistance.
Joints occur where there are two bones in contact or interact; all joints have some normal conjunct
rotation. Fibrous joints (skeletal units bound by fibrous (ligament) connective tissue) syndesmosis-
relatively far apart, suture- thin layer of fibrous connective tissue connects bones of skull and face;
synostosis=obliterates and is filled by bone through, gomphosis- periodontal ligaments hold teeth in bony
sockets (alveolus) allowing little movement. Arthrology is study of joints
Cartilage is connective tissue comprising chondrocytes suspended in matrix of own making, surrounded
by perichondrium. Cartilaginous joints (skeletal units held apart by intervening layer of cartilage),
synchondrosis- hyaline cartilage; transitory (replaced by bone; synostose), diaphysis at end of growth is
fused to the epiphysis at zone of hyaline cartilage (epiphyseal plate). Symphisis- fibrocartilage binds two
skeletal parts and may last throughout lifespan, found at midline of body.
Synovial joints (allow most movement (diarthroses), articular cavity separating two articulating bones and
containing synovial fluid (synovium produced)), articular capsule consists of fibrous outer membrane and
synovial inner membrane. Types: plane, speroid, condylar, ellipsoid, trochoid, sellar, ginglymus.
Sesamoid bone (sesame-seed-like) bone in tendon (knee cap).