APY 345, 6 - Axial skeleton(skull vertebral column ribs...

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Axial skeleton (skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum) Appendicular skeleton (appendages) Flat bones (protect vital organs)Long bones (in limbs, assc. with locomotion) Short bones (shock absorbers) Irregular bones (variety of functions, ie. Vertebral column) In increasing size of projections or processes, tubercle, tuberosity, trochanter. Spine (sharp, pointed), head (enlarged, rounded articular surface at bone end), facet (raised, flat articular surface). Condyle (enlarged, knuckle-shaped, rounded, articular surface), epicondyle (projection above condyle). Fovea (smaller than fossa, depression), fossa (depression), perforations (allow soft tissue passage), Foramen (hole in bone), canal (tubular hole in bone), fissure (narrow cleft on/between bones). Smooth (involuntary, autonomic sys.), Skeletal, Cardiac muscles. Differentiated by striations, or lack thereof. Belly (thick fleshy part), tendon (connective tissue of muscles, long and narrow, or flattened and sheet-like; aponeurosis). Superficial fascia (connective, muscle enveloping tissue), deep fascia (forms sheaths around muscles and deeper structures), Ligaments (connective tissue of bones/skeletal parts). Muscles, bones, joints (class I, II, III levers). Class I: fulcrum is situated between Resistance (load) and Power. Class II: resistance is situated between fulcrum and power. Class III: Power is located between fulcrum and resistance. Joints occur where there are two bones in contact or interact; all joints have some normal conjunct rotation. Fibrous joints (skeletal units bound by fibrous (ligament) connective tissue) syndesmosis- relatively far apart, suture- thin layer of fibrous connective tissue connects bones of skull and face; synostosis=obliterates and is filled by bone through, gomphosis- periodontal ligaments hold teeth in bony sockets (alveolus) allowing little movement. Arthrology is study of joints Cartilage is connective tissue comprising chondrocytes suspended in matrix of own making, surrounded by perichondrium. Cartilaginous joints (skeletal units held apart by intervening layer of cartilage), synchondrosis- hyaline cartilage; transitory (replaced by bone; synostose), diaphysis at end of growth is fused to the epiphysis at zone of hyaline cartilage (epiphyseal plate). Symphisis- fibrocartilage binds two skeletal parts and may last throughout lifespan, found at midline of body. Synovial joints (allow most movement (diarthroses), articular cavity separating two articulating bones and containing synovial fluid (synovium produced)), articular capsule consists of fibrous outer membrane and synovial inner membrane. Types: plane, speroid, condylar, ellipsoid, trochoid, sellar, ginglymus. Sesamoid bone (sesame-seed-like) bone in tendon (knee cap). There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in humans, 34 in monkeys. Dorsal (sensory) root, Ventral (motor) root, dorsal root ganglion (cell bodies of dorsal rami, afferent fibers, derived from migrated neural crest cells).
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