Head, brain, cranial nerves-JFB

Head, brain, cranial nerves-JFB - JenniferByrnes...

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Jennifer Byrnes April 4 th , 2011
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Osteology of the Skull Viscerocraniu m - Zygomatic - Nasal - Maxilla - Mandible - Vomer Neurocranium - Frontal - Parietal - Occipital -Temporal - Sphenoid - Ethmoid Frontal bone Parietal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Vomer Mandible Maxilla Zygomatic bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Netter, 2006
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Sphenoid bone Frontal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Maxilla Zygomatic bone Parietal bone Netter, 2006 Greater wing Supraorbital notch (foramen) Glabella Orbital plate OOO Frontal process Infraorbital Foramen Anterior nasal spine Temporal bone Zygomaticofacial Foramen Coronal suture Superior temporal line Inferior temporal line Temporal fossa Squamous part Zygomatic process External auditory meatus Mastoid process Lambdoid suture External occipital protuberance Occipital bone Mandible Condyle Notch Coronoid process Ramus Oblique line Body Mental foramen
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Development of the Skull http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/craniofacial/LynmProject/BSC/BSC2.HTM
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Sutures of the Skull Lambdoid al suture
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(More) Development of the Skull http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/craniofacial/LynmProject/BSC/BSC2.HTM
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Fontanelles: Spaces covered by a cartilaginous membrane Why are these important for development?
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The Importance of Sutures Critical during human birth Regions of growth, maintained until brain reaches  adult size Fuse later on in adult life (can be retained) Craniosynostosis
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Evolution of the Primate Skull General Trends: Orbital Convergence Shortening of the face/snout Forward migration of Foramen magnum Increase in the size of the vault Buttressing of the mandible from chewing stresses Simian shelf versus mental protuberance (chin) Galago Cercopithecus Pan Human
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Comparative Anatomy Lemur (Prosimians) - Long tapered snout - Small cranial vault - Orbits positioned laterally - Foramen magnum towards the  back of skull Macaque (Anthropoids) - Orbits positioned more anteriorally - Larger cranial vault - Back of orbits enclosed with bone
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Comparative Anatomy The Apes Supraorbital Torus Sagittal Crest Occipital (Nuchal) Crest Gorilla         Pan Pongo
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Hominin Evolution General trends over time : Increased cranial capacity Emergence of mental protuberance (chin) Browridge reduction Decreased prognathism Australopithecus africanus        Homo heidelbergensis     Homo sapien sapien
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The Brain
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Organization 3 major components: Cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem
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