4-5-10 review II - I want you to learn: Review for Prelim...

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Unformatted text preview: I want you to learn: Review for Prelim II Bio G 1110 April 5, 2010 How your body works. The creative process of discovery. How How we know what we know. The relationship between biology and society. To make wise and informed decisions about biological issues. Bones Archimedes realized the importance of an anchor anchor when using a lever when he said, “Give me a place to stand— stand—and I shall move the world.” 1 The Biology of Muscles Examples of Levers in Our Body Slow Twitch and Fast Twitch Skeletal Muscle SecondSecond-Class Levers Standing on tiptoes is an example of a secondsecondclass lever. When standing on tiptoes, the the toe is the fulcrum, the fulcrum whole whole body is the load and calf muscle provides the force. The mechanical mechanical advantage of this lever allows us to lift our entire body with the force generated by just one muscle. E L Why do some people burn Calories better than others? The Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) or the rate Basal in which Calories are burned at rest depends on a person’s proportion of muscle and fat. proportion Basal Metabolic Rate BMR = 13(Muscle) + 3(Fat) At At rest, the average person burns about 1600 Calories/day. At rest, each pound of muscle of muscle burns over 13 Calories/day. At At rest, each pound of fat burns less fat burns than 3 Calories/day. Calories/day. Average Height and Weight 2 Muscles Grow and Repair Themselves through the Addition of Satellite Cells Gene Therapy and Genetic Enhancement IGF-1 New Questions Facing Humanity: Myostatin Good Sportsmanship or Cheating? Parenting or Product Development? Reproductive Physiology and Development: The Male 3 Female Reproductive System The Male and Female Reproductive Systems Meet (in an MRI of all places) Woman → ← Man Man Schultz, W. W. et al. BMJ 1999;319:1596-1600 Fertilization In Females: Positive and Negative Feedback Results in a Monthly Cycle of Hormone Levels Pregnancy stops the cycle because the secretion of hCG by the chorion causes a continued secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum that maintains the softness of the endometrium and prevents ovulation. Pregnancy Test: Detects hCG Embryo Development 4 Nurture: Prenatal Environment. I am what my mother ate and did. The The embryo gets protective protective substances (e.g. antibodies) from the mother. It can also get harmful get harmful substances, including viruses, alcohol, drugs and nicotine, which can cause miscarriage, infectious diseases, birth defects and mental retardation. Development of Males/Females/Intersexuals Before the Discovery of Sex Chromosomes, it was Relatively Easy to Tell the Boys from the Girls Prince Albert and Queen Victoria 5 But what if the baby is neither a boy nor a girl? Katie Has XY Chromosomes and Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome http://www.indiana.edu/~ais/An_Interview_with_Katie.pdf The Letdown Reflex When a baby sucks on a nipple, a neuronal signal goes to the hypothalamus, which synthesizes and secretes oxytocin oxytocin. The oxytocin goes to the posterior pituitary from where it is released into the blood stream. The oxytocin flows oxytocin through the blood stream to the mammary mammary glands, where it causes milk to be let down (secreted) into a duct that is accessible to the suckling baby. Informed Informed Consent is a Basic Human Right Nuremberg Nuremberg 1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. This This means that the person involved should have legal capacity…able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or overother ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him [or her] to make an understanding and enlightened decision. Sexual Assault Statistics Date Rape Video youtube Date Rape Prevention Be Aware of Date Rape Drugs GHB a) Date Rape is a Crime b) Date Rape is a Crime c) Date Rape is a Crime d) Date Rape is a Crime e) Date Rape is a Crime 6 The Separation of Sex from Reproduction: Intracytoplamic Sperm Injection (ICSI) The Separation of Gestation from Maternity DNA: A Genetic Blueprint and a Genetic Fingerprint Together, Live Avirulent Bacteria and Dead Virulent Bacteria Kill Mice A person can be identified identified by his/her genes. Can a person be defined by defined his/her genes? Am I my genes? X-ray Diffraction of DNA Astbury and Bell (1938) interpreted the X-ray Xdiffraction pattern to indicate that DNA had a very simple crystalline structure and therefore too simple to be the hereditary material. Chemical Fractionation Shows that the Transforming Factor is DNA Avery et al. (1944) fractionated the pneumatocci and meticulously isolated isolated the various fractions and found that the transforming transforming principle was none other than the proteinprotein-free DNA fraction. 7 Erwin Chargaff Rosalind Franklin Was Using XXRay Diffraction to Determine The Structure of DNA The Double Helix 8 Designing the Human Genotype Eugenics was a way of perfecting the human race by Will Society be Prepared? – sterilizing people with dysgenic traits. – limiting immigration of people with dysgenic traits. – murdering people with dysgenic traits. – encouraging marriage between people with eugenic traits. The New Eugenics or Newgenics is a way of perfecting the individual by: – selecting in vitro embryos that have eugenic traits and not dysgenic traits. – gene doping with selected human growth hormone, insulin-like protein 1 and insulinmyostatin genes. Howard Gardner: Ethical Covenant Differential Gene Transcription DNA DNA Replication Transcription 9 RNA Splicing: Alternative Transcripts Translation: Protein Synthesis Protein: Polymer of Amino Acids N o n p o l a r P o l a r 10 Enzymes Lower Activation Energy But Activity Depends on Match Between Affinity and Substrate Concentration Hereditary Disease: Sickle Cell Anemia; Thalessemia, Thalessemia, Cystic Fibrosis, SCID, Phenylketonuria, Phenylketonuria, Alkaptonuria and Albinism Hereditary Diseases: Inborn Errors in Metabolism Engineered Horizontal Gene Transfer Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer developed and patented a technique to introduce horizontal gene transfer as part of the process of artificial selection. Use a plasmid or a plasmid deactivated deactivated virus to facilitate the transfer. A plasmid is a small circular plasmid DNA molecule found in a bacterium that replicates faster than its large DNA molecule or “chromosome”. 11 Biotechnology Recombinant Recombinant Human Growth Hormone www.nutropin.com Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Kary Mullis invented PCR PCR, the polymerase chain chain reaction, to clone genes efficiently in in vitro. Thermus aquaticus: Thermophile Thermus aquaticus lives in hot (70 °C) springs in Yellowstone National Park. In order to live in hot springs, its polymerase polymerase must be stable stable at high temperatures, a quality needed for PCR. Cetus Corporation collected the bacterium from this source and isolated Taq polymerase from the bacterium. PCR is Used for Paternity Testing 12 DNA Sequencing Given the sequencing data on the right, the sequence of the template DNA template DNA is: A) CATCCGAAGTTCGA B) B) GTAGGCTTCAAGCT C) TCGAACTTCGGATG D) ACGTACGTACGTAC E) THECATINTHEHAT International HapMap Project Gene Therapy for SCID Use the power of computers to correlate correlate single nucleotide polymorphisms(S NPs) in a particular group with the probability of that group getting a particular disease. UK baby Cured of SCID with Gene Therapy Lee Silver Designer Babies 13 GermGerm-line Gene Therapy Many bioethicists believe that germgerm-cell gene therapy is inevitable. Julian Savulescu (→) believes that that it is unethical to not provide provide one’s child with a designer chromosome carrying the best genes money can buy. Not providing the best genes possible would be a form of child abuse. http://www.practicalethics.ox.ac.uk/ What is Science?: Scientism as a Rational Philosophy or an Irrational Dogma What if the New Chromosome Did Not Work as Expected or a New and Better Model Comes Out Would you have buyer’s remorse? Would you look at your child as a defective product? A lemon? Would Would you sue the company that produced the chromosome, the IVF clinic for medical malpractice? From GRID to AIDS Scientism is a philosophy of the world that believes that there are natural natural explanations for all phenomena. The results of skillful empirical research skillful can can be combined with mathematical mathematical analysis analysis in prepared and intuitive prepared and intuitive minds to develop explanations for all explanations real phenomena. Scientism Scientism can transform from a rational rational philosophy to an irrational dogma by irrational believing believing without doubt that the materialism upon which scientism is based is a proven fact and not an assumption. proven assumption The High Risk Groups for Getting AIDS were not Necessarily Members of the Conservative Base of the Reagan Administration The 4-H Group 4– Homosexuals – Heroin addicts – Haitians – Hookers and other promiscuous heterosexuals According to C. Everett Koop, President Reagan’s “handlers” were not particularly concerned about saving the lives of people who fell into these categories. The Fifth H: Hemophiliacs But when a few boys with hemophilia contracted AIDS, AIDS, the nation woke up. It was a signal event in America. 14 He Became America’s Family Doctor HIV Life Cycle Binding Binding to helper T cells (CD4 cells) Fusion Reverse transcriptase Genome integration Genome replication 1-10 billion RNAs/day and random mutations lead to variation Protein synthesis and cleavage Virus Assembly AIDS And he educated us (in ways we were not used to) ABC News He Told us First and Foremost that We Would Not get AIDS if we Had “Safe Behaviors” Abstain from sex. Have sex with one one mutually faithful, uninfected partner. Do not shoot drugs. Condoms Are Effective in Reducing the Risk of Transmitting HIV Laboratory studies show that latex latex condoms provide an impermeable barrier to particles the size of STD pathogens. Epidemiologic Epidemiologic studies that are con conducted in real-life settings, lif where where one partner is infected with HIV and the other partner is not, demonstrate that the consistent consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of transmitting HIV. www.youtube.com Average use of condoms result in 10-20% risk of 10getting HIV. ripnroll.com 15 Some Kinds of Sex are More Risky than Others Receiving anal sex is the riskiest form of sex for contracting HIV since the rectal rectal mucosa is delicate and can easily tear, exposing tiny blood vessels. The HIV virus can most easily enter the blood this way and find its way to the helper T cells in the thymus. What Are You Doing to Prevent the Transmission of HIV/AIDS? Treatments Treatments for AIDS Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART) Block Block the receptor (GP120) receptor protein on the HIV-1 virus that HIVrecognizes and binds to the helper T cell. Inhibit the reverse transcriptase reverse necessary necessary to convert the viral RNA into into viral DNA. Inhibit the integrase necessary to integrase insert the viral DNA into the helper T cell DNA. Inhibit the proteases that convert proteases the translated viral proteins into smaller proteins necessary for viral assembly. www.hivpositivemagazine.com Good Luck on Prelim II Find that perfect balance between: rest and digest and just enough stress to do well on the test. “Youth is the time when the character is being molded and easily takes any impression one may wish to stamp on it. Shall we then simply allow our children to listen to any stories that anyone happens to make up and so receive into their minds ideas often the very opposite to those we shall think they ought to have when they are grown up?” --The Republic by Plato 16 ...
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