ArsenicPresentation

ArsenicPresentation - Development of an Arsenic Mitigation...

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Unformatted text preview: Development of an Arsenic Mitigation Strategy for Bangladesh Development of an Arsenic Mitigation Strategy for Bangladesh Brian Clifton and Stew Harwood University of Oklahoma – May 4, 2006 Introduction Introduction • 80 million people in Bangladesh are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic in well water • The goal of this project was to develop an arsenic mitigation plan by designing an arsenic removal device that provides potable water Introduction Introduction • Four arsenic removal devices were considered: – – Activated Alumina Activated Alumina (designed) – Reverse Osmosis (designed) – Arsenic BioSand Filter (literature) – Iron Oxide Coated Sand (literature) Introduction Introduction • The community-sized activated alumina device was selected – Minimizes Cost – Maximizes sustainability and ease-of-use • Each device serves one well – Approximately 250 people • The cost is $4.79 per person, or $383 million for countrywide implementation over ten years Arsenicosis Arsenicosis The various clinical manifestations caused by chronic arsenic toxicity due to prolonged drinking of arsenic-contaminated water, or chronic exposure to arsenic via other sources The Arsenic Problem The Arsenic Problem • Minor Health Effects – Hyper-pigmentation • Pigmentation alterations (hyper and hypo) • Melanosis – Hyper-keratosis • Thickening of the skin The Arsenic Problem The Arsenic Problem • Major Health Effects – Bronchitis – Liver Damage – External and Internal Malignancies • Extreme skin lesions The Arsenic Problem The Arsenic Problem • 30 Million at Extreme Risk – At risk of contamination levels > 50 ppb • 50 Million at High Risk – At risk of contamination levels > 10 ppb The Arsenic Problem The Arsenic Problem • Over 100 million drink well water • Piped water only serves 10% of the population. • Surface to ground water switch started in 60’s • Until arsenic discovery in 1993, well water was regarded safe for drinking • Geological origin of arsenic contamination The Arsenic Problem The Arsenic Problem • Probability of locations exceeding various toxic thresholds The Arsenic Problem The Arsenic Problem • Probability of locations exceeding various toxic thresholds The Arsenic Problem The Arsenic Problem • Probability of locations exceeding various toxic thresholds The Arsenic Problem The Arsenic Problem • Probability of locations exceeding various toxic thresholds Water Quality: Arsenic Water Quality: Arsenic 10-50 37 > 1000 0.1 500 – 1000 1.7 200 – 500 7.3 50 – 200 15.9 Arsenic (ppb) % of wells Water Quality Water Quality • Antimony, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Molybdenum and Nickel levels all meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards • 5% of wells have high boron levels • High iron levels (1.1 mg/L) – No health risk, reduced by slow sand filter • Low turbidity (few visible particles) Slow Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration • Each of the designs considered uses slow...
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ArsenicPresentation - Development of an Arsenic Mitigation...

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