Flame retardant- Presentation

Flame retardant- Presentation - Flame Retardants Group...

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Unformatted text preview: Flame Retardants Group 4April 8 th Danielle Keese Jeff Mueggenborg Esan Savannah Ha Nguyen Dangers of Fire (United States in 2002) Someone died in a fire every 3 hrs and someone was injured every 37 minutes 401,000 home fires Residential fires caused more than $6.1 billion in property damage What is a Flame Retardant? A chemical added to combustible materials to render them more resistant to ignition Minimizes the risk of fire starting Increases the safety of lives and property What is a Flame Retardant? 4 major family of Flame Retardant Provides for a safer material without compromising performance Flame retardants work to slow or stop the combustion cycle Combustion Cycle Flammable materials are decomposed to release energy in the form of heat and light Combustion of hydrocarbon: Examples of combustion: Phosphorus CH 3 PH 4 +4O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O + H 3 PO 4 + H Methane Chloride CH 3 ClH 2 + 2O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + HCl + H H O H n nCO O H C spark y x + + + 2 2 2 Polymeric Plastic Combustion The combustion reaction takes place in the vapor phase 3 phases of products of pyrolysis: Liquid Solid Vapor Flame Retardant Families Halogenated FRs Chlorinated Wider Temperature range for radical release Used most commonly as a paraffin additive Brominated Most common FR in production Five classifications, with over 75 compounds on the market High degree of control over release temperature Halogenated FRs Act in the Vapor phase Reduce the heat generated by flames, thereby inhibiting the formation of flammable gases Behave according to a Free Radical Trap theory H O H OH H Br O H HBr OH H HBr H Br Br R Br R n heat x n + + + + + + 2 2 ) ( Halogenated FR Mechanism Free Radical Trap mechanism Process regenerates halogen radicals to perpetuate the reaction. Phosphorus Containing FRs Additive to material its protecting Acts in solid phase Reacts to form phosphoric acid Acid coats to form char Char slows down pyrolysis step of combustion cycle Phosphorus Containing FR Mechanism Thermal decomposition leads to the formation of phosphoric acid: Phosphorus Containing FR Mechanism Phosphoric acid formed esterifies, dehydrates the oxygen-containing polymer and causes charring: Phosphorus FR Pros Efficient FR Performance Needed Dosage Lower than Halogenated FRs Does Not Produce Toxic Smoke Does Not Produce Toxic Dioxins and Furans described in more detail later Phosphorus FR Cons Higher price/kg than Halogenated Have Limited Industrial Uses because of Mechanism Char layer undesired in FR pajamas and similar products Uses of Phosphorus Containing FRs Common Uses Plasticizers Plastics Polyurethane Foam Nitrogen Containing FR Mechanism Not a fully understood mechanism What is known: Nitrogen gas is released into the atmosphere...
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2011 for the course CHE 4273 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Oklahoma State.

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Flame retardant- Presentation - Flame Retardants Group...

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