Flame Retardants-2006-Presentation

Flame Retardants-2006-Presentation - Freeze Flame Nano...

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Freeze Flame Nano Presented May 4, 2006 by Keshan Velasquez Tyler Viani
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Outline • Introduction to Fires and Flame retardants • Problem Statement • Product Discovery • Economics and Business Plan • Conclusions and Recommendations
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How a Fire Starts 1 • Material comes in contact with heat source • Pyrolysis – Decomposition of material • Flammable gas reacts with oxygen • H · and OH · radicals are released 1 How Flame Retardants Work? EFRA. Accessed January 2006. <http://www.cefic-efra.com/>
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Importance of Flame Retardants 2 • 1.7 million fires annually from 1995-2004 • 500,000 occurred in building structures • 4,000 civilian fire deaths • 21,000 civilian fire injuries 2 United States Fire Administration. National Fire Statistics . Accessed January 2006. www.usfa.fema.gov/statistic/national/
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Goal of Flame Retardants • Increase resistance to ignition of fire • Delay the spread of flame providing time for either extinguishing the flames or for escaping • Save lives
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Flame Retardant Families 1 • Halogenated • Most often bromine • Less electronegative / weaker bonds • Remove H · and OH · radicals • Relatively low cost • Potentially toxic • Not biodegradable 1 How Flame Retardants Work? EFRA. Accessed January 2006. <http://www.cefic-efra.com/>
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Flame Retardant Families 1 • Phosphorus • When heated, H 3 PO 4 is released causing charring • Char layer protects material from heat • Nontoxic, biodegradable • Lower concentrations can be used • Higher price than halogenated 1 How Flame Retardants Work? EFRA. Accessed January 2006. <http://www.cefic-efra.com/>
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Flame Retardant Families 1 • Nitrogen • Nitrogen gas dilutes flammable gas • Cross-linked structures inhibit pyrolysis • Can partially replace other flame retardants • Must be used in high concentrations or in conjunction with another flame retardant • Mechanism not fully understood 1 How Flame Retardants Work? EFRA. Accessed January 2006. <http://www.cefic-efra.com/>
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Flame Retardant Families 1 • Inorganic • Aluminum Hydroxide / Magnesium Hydroxide • Endothermic reaction • Forms protective layer and dilutes gases in air. • Boron Compounds • Form protective layer, causes charring • Easily incorporated into plastics • High concentrations needed 1 How Flame Retardants Work? EFRA. Accessed January 2006. <http://www.cefic-efra.com/>
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Flame Retardant Market 3 • Market as of 2006 • Globally • 2 billion pounds • $2.1 billion • U.S. • 1 billion pounds • $1 billion • Flame Retardant Coatings • 24.5 million pounds • $27.6 million 45% 24% 4% 27% Halogenated Phosphorus Nitrogen Inorganics 3 Lerner, Ivan. “FR Market Down but Not Out: Albemarle Stays the Course.” Chemical Market Reporter . December 10, 2001 p. 12.
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Market Projections 3 • Demand for Flame Retardants to grow 3.6% annually • Market Value to increase 5.9% 3 Lerner, Ivan. “FR Market Down but Not Out: Albemarle Stays the Course.” Chemical Market Reporter . December 10, 2001 p. 12.
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Problem Statement • Develop a biodegradable, non-toxic flame retardant and analyze economic feasibility
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Flame Retardants-2006-Presentation - Freeze Flame Nano...

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