Gas Hydrate Transportation-Abstract

Gas Hydrate Transportation-Abstract - Natural Gas Hydrate...

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Unformatted text preview: Natural Gas Hydrate Transportation and Storage* David Mannel**, David Puckett**, and Miguel Bagajewicz * This work was done as part of the capstone Chemical Engineering class at the University of Oklahoma ** Capstone Undergraduate students • • • • • • • • • Natural gas is a mixture of small hydrocarbons commonly as a fuel and a chemical feedstock. Areas of high natural gas supply are generally far from areas of high natural gas demand, necessitating shipping. Natural gas hydrates are a solid phase of natural gas and water that forms a crystalline lattice. Hydrates condense the volume of natural gas, which is desirable for shipping and storage. Transportation of natural gas using hydrates requires three major stages. 1. Production: The synthesis of hydrates from water and natural gas. 2. Shipping: The transportation of hydrates from the production to the regasification plant. 3. Regasification: The dissociation of hydrates to natural gas and water. Natural gas hydrates have a higher total annualized cost per ton of methane than LNG for the transportation of natural gas primrily because LNG has a higher energy density than natural gas hydrates. For a plant capacity of 2 mtpa and a transportation distance of 4,000 miles the total annualized cost for natural gas hydrates is $160/ton compared to $105/ton for LNG at an M&S index of 1000. Natural gas hydrates have a lower return on investment than LNG for the transportation of natural gas. For a plant capacity of 2 mtpa, a transportation distance of 4,000 miles, and revenues of $120/ton of natural gas, the return on investment for natural gas hydrates is ‐5% and for LNG is 4.5% at an M&S index of 1000. Natural gas hydrates have a lower fixed capital investment per ton of methane than LNG for a peak‐shaving process. For a plant capacity of 2 mtpa the fixed capital investment for natural gas hydrates is $108/ton and for LNG is $260/ton at an M&S index of 1000. Natural gas hydrates have a higher return on investment than LNG for a peak‐shaving process. For a plant capacity of 2 mtpa and sales of $120/ton the return on investment for natural gas hydrates is 35% and for LNG is 12% at an M&S index of 1000. Transportation of natural gas using hydrates is uneconomical when compared to LNG. Natural gas hydrates are economically favorable for peak‐shaving compared to LNG. ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2011 for the course CHE 4273 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Oklahoma State.

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