Gas Tank-Powerpoint presentation

Gas Tank-Powerpoint presentation - HEMIS® Polymer...

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Unformatted text preview: HEMIS® Polymer Composite Gasoline Tanks Lucio Boccacci Lucio Jaime Erazo Nick Harm Zack McGill Ryan Posey University of Oklahoma Introduction Introduction Purpose Purpose To produce marketable polymer gasoline tanks To To propose a competitive and appealing business plan To Project Considerations Project Current Gas Tanks Current Safety and Regulations Safety Material Selection Material Process Design Process Tank Design Tank Financial Evaluations Financial Risk and Uncertainty Risk First Stage First Determine limiting factors Determine Existing gas tanks Existing Cost Cost Quality Quality State and federal regulations State These factors must be met, These must or surpassed, for successful design and plan Current Gas Tank Comparison Current Plastic Plastic Competitive Edge Competitive Various materials Various Possibly recyclable Possibly Lightweight Lightweight Additives and layers Additives Complex geometry Complex Emerging product (Visteon) Emerging Current Uses Current Automobiles Automobiles Boats Boats Farm equipment Farm Lawn equipment Lawn Motorcycles Motorcycles Race Cars Race Steel Steel 20 gauge low Carbon 20 Competitive Edge Competitive Historical use Historical Types Types Strong Strong Low diffusion Low Recyclable Recyclable Cost Comparison Cost Visteon Visteon Six layer design Six High density polyethylene High structure Ethylene vinyl alcohol barrier Ethylene layer Linear low density polyethylene Linear adhesive layer Blow molding process Blow Estimated selling price $53.00 Estimated Sold directly to automobile Sold manufacturer Price based on 15% return on Price investment Federal Regulations Federal U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Federal Regulations, Post Crash Standard No. 301 crash requirements Frontal Barrier Frontal Rear Moving Rear Lateral Moving Lateral Static Rollover Static Purpose Purpose Reduce deaths and injuries Reduce Federal Regulations Federal Fuel spillage limits for each crash test Fuel 28 g from impact until cessation of motion 28 142 g in next 5 minutes 142 25 g per minute in next 25 minutes 25 Other requirements Other Parking brake disengaged Parking Transmission in neutral Transmission 90 – 95% full fuel system 90 Including hoses and activated pumps Including Federal Regulations Federal Vehicle must pass 2 evaporative emissions tests Vehicle Using SHED (sealed housing for evaporative determination) Using 2 grams of hydrocarbon in a 24 hr period grams Includes one hour hot soak test Includes 0.05 g/mi loss test standard under normal driving 0.05 conditions Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Extended Evaporative Emissions Test Extended Future standard Future California plans 0.35 g/day “zero emissions” standard California Other states will follow Other First Stage Summary First Design Design Capitalize on advantages Capitalize Plastic is inexpensive Plastic Study numerous material options Study Additives and layers Additives Improve on possible weak points Improve Strength Strength Diffusion Diffusion Regulations Regulations Comparison of mechanical properties of materials Comparison Determination of diffusion model Determination Set “near zero” emissions goal Set Pass all current Federal and State regulations Pass Pass future regulations Pass Second Stage Second Materials selection Identify feasible materials Identify Structure and properties Structure Consider additives Consider Consider multiple layer design Consider Mechanical properties Mechanical Diffusion model Diffusion Materials Identified Materials Selection Selection Based on properties Based Feasibility of design Feasibility Materials Materials High density polyethylene (HDPE) High Nylon Nylon Glass filled nylon Glass Epoxies Epoxies Polyurethane Polyurethane Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) Ethylene KYNAR® (polyvinyldenefluoride) KYNAR Curv® (polypropylene product) Curv Mechanical Properties Mechanical Tensile strength/Yield strength Tensile Abrasion resistance Abrasion Rockwell hardness Rockwell Puncture resistance Puncture High speed puncture test High Flexural strength Flexural Charpy impact energy Charpy Mechanical Properties Mechanical Charpy Impact Energy Charpy Resistance to impact Resistance Linear with thickness Linear Simulates actual Simulates impact Used to compare Used materials to steel Charpy Impact Relation to Charpy Thickness Directly related to thickness Linear relationship Thickness Calculation Thickness U=Total impact energy (J) Udes=Desired total impact energy Chi=Charpy impact strength of material i (J/cm²) Bs=thickness of steel tank D=width of test sample B=thickness of material needed to make its strength equal to TEdes U = CH s ∗ Bs ∗ D U des B= CH i ∗ D Thickness and Strength Thickness Charpy Impact Energy (J/cm2) Thickness (mm) 1020 Steel 16.9 0.912 HDPE 6.8 2.41 Nylon 6 5.2 3.15 Nylon 6 10% glass 0.5 30.95 Nylon 6 20% glass 1.7 9.65 Nylon 6 30% glass 1.8 9.11 Nylon 6/6 3.4 4.82 Nylon 6/6 20% glass 1.0 16.40 Nylon 6/6 30% glass 1.7 9.65 Nylon 12 2.4 6.84 Nylon 12 20% glass 1.6 10.25 Nylon 12 30% glass 1.7 9.65 Curv 12.0 1.37 Material Diffusion Model Diffusion Diffusion through Diffusion walls needs to meet EPA emissions regulations One dimensional, One steady state diffusion through barrier (hydrophilic) layer needs to be investigated Diffusion Resistances Diffusion Adsorption – Governed by Henry’s Adsorption Law c= S× p c= Concentration c= S= Henry’s solubility coefficient S= p= vapor pressure of gas p= Liquid diffusion negligible Liquid Surface should be hydrophilic Surface Gasoline is hydrophobic Gasoline Diffusion Resistance Cont. Diffusion Fick’s Law of Diffusion Fick dca N az = Dab × dz Na = Flux out Na Dab= Diffusion Coefficient Ca= Concentration Ca= z= Thickness z= Diffusion Resistance Cont. Diffusion Desorption/ Convection Desorption Desorption governed by Henry’s Law Desorption Correlation for Convective Mass Correlation Transfer Coefficient Dab kc = × (0.332 × Rel0.5 × Sc1/ 3 ) l Diffusion Resistance Cont. Diffusion Assumptions for Local Reynold’s Assumptions Number Pressure = 1 atm Pressure Temperature= 300 K Temperature= Natural Convection = 0.0833 ft/s Natural Local Length for Correlation = Local 0.833 ft Diffusion Resistance Cont. Diffusion Convective Mass Transfer Convective Coefficient = 9.10 x 10-4 ft/s ft/s Overall mass balance yields Overall concentration of 1.25 x 10-10 mol/cm3 Negligible concentration, no Negligible boundary layer resistance Diffusion Model Diffusion New Term- Permeability New P = D ab × S Dab= Diffusion Coefficient S= Henry’s Solubility Coefficient S= Why introduce permeability??? Why Fewer terms will simplify the final equation Fewer Diffusion Model Diffusion Integrated Fick’s Law Integrated Dab × (ca 2 − ca1 ) N az = x Substituting Henry’s Law, and Permeability Substituting C = S× p P = D ab × S Final Diffusion Model Final P × A × ( p2 − p1 ) N az = x Second Stage Results Second Material Diffusion Thickness (mm) Charpy Impact Required (mm) Nylon 6 0.566 3.15 HDPE 7825 2.41 Curv 8607 1.37 Kynar 0.132 7.46 EVOH 0.033 41.31 Nylon cannot be used alone Nylon Needs polar barrier Needs Tank will require 2 layers Tank Barrier- EVOH Barrier Structural- Curv®, HDPE, or Nylon 6 Structural Third Stage Third Process selection Process Identify and analyze feasible processes Identify Injection Molding Injection Stamping Stamping Rotational Molding Rotational Blow Molding Blow Match materials with processes Match Compare Returns on investment (ROI) Compare Choose process Choose Based on profitability Based Injection Molding Injection Advantages Advantages Self contained Self process Disadvantages Disadvantages High equipment cost High Tanks will have Tanks seams Compatible materials Compatible HDPE HDPE Nylon Nylon Stamping Stamping Advantages Advantages Simple process Simple Low cycle times Low Low maintenance Low Disadvantages Disadvantages Cannot produce complex Cannot shapes Tanks must contain seams Tanks Compatible materials Compatible HDPE HDPE Nylon Nylon Curv® Curv Rotational Molding Rotational Advantages Advantages Complex geometry Complex Seamless Seamless Stress free corners Stress Disadvantages Disadvantages Larger labor needed Larger Lower production Lower volumes High utilities High Large machinery Large Compatible Materials Compatible Nylon Nylon HDPE HDPE Blow Molding Blow Advantages Advantages Large volumes Large Low cycle times Low Disadvantages Disadvantages Loss of trimmed material Loss 20 - 30 % of total part 20 High pressure High Compatible Materials Compatible Nylon Nylon HDPE HDPE Process Spreadsheet Process Process Spreadsheet Cont. Process Input Input Plant capacity, annual working days, daily Plant working hours Output Output Material costs Material Equipment costs Equipment Utility costs Utility Tank specifications Tank Financial Evaluation Financial Third Stage Summary Third Process TCI ($million) ROI (%) Blow Molding HDPE 10.0 5.2 Injection Molding HDPE 43.5 -15.3 Rotomolding HDPE 11.1 -16.5 Stamping Curv 3.6 15.5 Stamping HDPE 9.0 -9.0 Nylon excluded Nylon Similar in cost and application to HDPE Similar HDPE stronger, lighter HDPE Stamping Curv Stamping Smallest TCI Smallest Best ROI Best Fourth Stage Fourth Detailed design Detailed Process Process EVOH Layer EVOH Joining tank halves Joining Gas tank design Gas Wall layers and thicknesses Wall Stamping Process Diagram Stamping Tank halves produced separately Tank Flanges on each half used to join together Flanges Adhesive Adhesive EVOH Layer EVOH Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) Linear Made by spraying EVOH Made Zero-emission standards Zero 35 micron EVOH layer minimum requirement 35 140 micron EVOH layer will be used 140 Process Process Mix with solvent Mix Ethanol – 80/20 solvent/water Ethanol 40 wt% solvent mixture 40 Spray on the tank Spray Solvent evaporates Solvent Joining Halves Joining Heat flanges on side Heat Press together Press Steel Rivets Steel Final Gas Tank Design Final Constant wall thickness Constant Dimensions/Shape Dimensions/Shape Dependent on contract Dependent Variability in dimensions: Variability 30 - 36 inches in length 30 22 - 28 inches in width 22 7 - 10 inches in height Final Stage Final Develop business plan Develop Strategy Strategy Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT Program diagram) Risk and Uncertainty Risk Optimal location Optimal Pert Diagram Pert Pert Diagram Pert Risk and Uncertainty Risk Determine possible interest levels Determine Associate a probability to each level Associate Generate random samples for Curv®, Generate EVOH, LLDPE, and rivet prices Develop scenarios using possible interests Develop and generated prices Calculate the probability and NPV for each Calculate scenario Possible Outcome Example Possible Risk Curve Risk Risk Curve 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Risk 0.6 0.5 0.4 ENPV(0.64) 0.3 0.2 OV = 3.92 0.1 VaR = 1.77 0 -5.00 -3.00 -1.00 1.00 3.00 NPV (Millions of Dollars) 5.00 7.00 9.00 Final Stage Conclusions Final Stamping Curv® with an EVOH barrier Stamping Total Capital Investment = $3.61 million Total ROI = 15.5 % ROI NPV = $3.36 million over 10 year project NPV life Product Comparison Product Curv®/EVOH Curv $42.00 $42.00 8.1 lbs 8.1 Recyclable Recyclable 2.3 mm wall thickness 2.3 HDPE/EVOH HDPE/EVOH $53.00 $53.00 17.6 lbs 17.6 Non-recyclable Non 4.52 mm wall thickness 4.52 Recommendations Recommendations Further analyze risk and uncertainty Further Improve expansion Improve Gauge market interest Gauge Expand automobile models considered Expand Questions? Questions? ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2011 for the course CHE 4273 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Oklahoma State.

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