Insect Repellents-Final Presentation

Insect Repellents-Final Presentation - Insect Repellent...

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Unformatted text preview: Insect Repellent Design Final Report Erin Ashley Scott Doman May 4, 2006 Introduction The Repellent Market r DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) was discovered in 1946 r The market has remained largely unchanged since then r Consumer pressures have led companies to seek gentler and safer alternatives to DEET r OFF! and Cutter are the major players in the repellent market Introduction The Repellent Market r The company that can come up with an economically feasible, user-friendly, safe product stands to gain a large share of the market. r Initial aim: develop a new repellent that will accomplish these objectives c Investigate insect/repellent interactions Background Insect Receptors Types of Receptors c Thermoreceptors c Mechanoreceptors Tactile receptors Sound receptors c Photoreceptors c Chemoreceptors Gustatory receptors Olfactory receptors Source: http://www.mediabum.com/images/mosquito.jpg Background Insect Chemoreceptors r Olfactory chemoreceptors are usually located on the antennae r Each antenna is covered in hair- like sensilla containing neurons r Each antenna can have as many as 75,000 receptor cells Source: http://www.insectscience.org/3.2/ref/fig5.jpg Background Chemoreceptor Mechanism Protein Sodium Channel Source: http://www.pneuro.com/publications/insidetheneuron Source: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/BIOL3235 Background Insects of Interest r How do insects use their receptors to find humans? c Visual Stimuli: long distances c Chemical Stimuli: short distances Carbon dioxide from skin and breath Lactic acid from skin c Temperature Stimuli: very close range r What types of insects are interested in humans? c Mosquitoes c Ticks c Fleas Source: http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/mosquito6a.jpg Background Repellent Mechanisms r What we need to know c How insect repellents work Blockers-blinds the insect to the presence of its meal Repellents-works opposite of an attractant Alarms-sends a danger signal to the insects brain c Characteristics of a certain molecule that give it repellent properties Background Repellent Mechanisms r Unfortunately, the true mechanisms of repellents are not known! r According to Dr. Joel Coats at Iowa State University, Structure-activity relationships of repellents are unclear, and little definitive work has been done.Vapor pressure is the only parameter significantly related to mosquito repellent activity. Source: Coats, Joel, Insect Repellents- Past, Present, and Future Background A New Pursuit r Instead of developing a new repellent, we plan to re-engineer an existing repellent r Market research is performed to determine which repellents to re-engineer Background Repellents in the U.S. Market c DEET The most commonly used insect repellent One of few repellents that can be applied to the skin Unpleasant scent Damages plastic and other synthetic materials Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DEET Background Repellents in the U.S. MarketRepellents in the U....
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Insect Repellents-Final Presentation - Insect Repellent...

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