MSW Presentation

MSW Presentation - Fertilizers Green is Seen in Fertilizers...

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Carrie Farberow Kevin Bailey University of Oklahoma May 1, 2007 “Green is Seen in Fertilizers Green is Seen in Fertilizers Green is Seen in Fertilizers” Municipal Solid Waste Management Municipal Solid Waste Management
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MSW Overview EPA 2005 Facts and Figures U.S. Waste Produced = 245.7 million ton
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Municipal Solid Waste c Composition is highly variable c Poor quality fuel c Low heating value c High moisture content c Difficult to handle and feed to process equipment
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Landfilling c Waste is deposited and buried c Produces leachate c Groundwater pollutant c Greenhouse gas emissions c Methane and CO 2 c Costs cities $10 to $70 per ton c Reduces nearby land property value c 2005: Landfill Waste c 133.3 million tons
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Municipal solid waste has steadily increased throughout the past 45 years. The number of landfills has steadily decreased throughout the past 17 years.
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Incineration c Waste is completely combusted c Minimizes land required by landfills c Reduces weight by up to 90% c Waste-to-energy c Pollutants c Greenhouse gases c Toxic ash c High operation costs c 2005: Waste combusted with energy recovery c 33.4 million tons
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Pyrolysis/Gasification c Partial combustion c Limited (less than stoichiometric) amount of oxygen c Thermally self-sustaining c Combust a small portion of the feed to generate heat for pyrolytic reactions CO CO C H CO O H C CO O C 2 2 2 2 2 2 + + + + kmol MJ H kmol MJ H kmol MJ H / 173 / 131 / 406 = = - =
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Benefits of Pyrolysis/Gasification c Potential to be profitable c Produce fuel or chemicals c Reduce quantity and improve quality of solid discards c Remedy municipal solid waste management problems
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Pyrolysis Mass Balance
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Pretreatment Processing c Shredding to reduce MSW particle size c Air/density separator c Heavy fraction exits bottom c 90% of ferrous removed in magnetic separator c 66% of aluminum removed in eddy current aluminum separator c Light fraction, mostly organic, exits the top c Cyclone removes particulates
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Pyrolysis/Gasification c Exothermic reactions in oxidative zone c High temperature endothermic reactions in the reduction zone c In the absence of oxygen c Produces two products c synthetic gas c slag
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Synthesis Gas c Molar composition c Carbon monoxide – 40% c Hydrogen – 24% c Carbon dioxide – 24% c Other gases – 12% c Typically produced from coal or hydrocarbons c Syngas composition can be altered depending on desired end product
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Product Options
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Product Selection c Criteria c Profitability based on NPW and IRR c Varied MSW capacity c Current and Future Market c Estimated using information in literature and current journals c Total Capital Investment c Product Price c Operating Cost
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c Total Capital Investment c Operating Cost and TCI scaled up using cost indices c Product Price c Most Current Available Prices c Neglected c Front End Processing c Waste Revenue c Taxes, Depreciation, Inflation 65 . 0 R
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MSW Presentation - Fertilizers Green is Seen in Fertilizers...

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