MSW Presentation - Fertilizers Green is Seen in Fertilizers...

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Carrie Farberow Kevin Bailey University of Oklahoma May 1, 2007 “Green is Seen in Fertilizers Green is Seen in Fertilizers Municipal Solid Waste Management
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MSW Overview EPA 2005 Facts and Figures U.S. Waste Produced = 245.7 million ton
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Municipal Solid Waste circle5 Composition is highly variable circle5 Poor quality fuel circle5 Low heating value circle5 High moisture content circle5 Difficult to handle and feed to process equipment
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Landfilling circle5 Waste is deposited and buried circle5 Produces leachate circle5 Groundwater pollutant circle5 Greenhouse gas emissions circle5 Methane and CO 2 circle5 Costs cities $10 to $70 per ton circle5 Reduces nearby land property value circle5 2005: Landfill Waste circle5 133.3 million tons
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Municipal solid waste has steadily increased throughout the past 45 years. The number of landfills has steadily decreased throughout the past 17 years.
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Incineration circle5 Waste is completely combusted circle5 Minimizes land required by landfills circle5 Reduces weight by up to 90% circle5 Waste-to-energy circle5 Pollutants circle5 Greenhouse gases circle5 Toxic ash circle5 High operation costs circle5 2005: Waste combusted with energy recovery circle5 33.4 million tons
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Pyrolysis/Gasification circle5 Partial combustion circle5 Limited (less than stoichiometric) amount of oxygen circle5 Thermally self-sustaining circle5 Combust a small portion of the feed to generate heat for pyrolytic reactions CO CO C H CO O H C CO O C 2 2 2 2 2 2 + + + kmol MJ H kmol MJ H kmol MJ H / 173 / 131 / 406 = = - =
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Benefits of Pyrolysis/Gasification circle5 Potential to be profitable circle5 Produce fuel or chemicals circle5 Reduce quantity and improve quality of solid discards circle5 Remedy municipal solid waste management problems
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Pyrolysis Mass Balance
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Pretreatment Processing circle5 Shredding to reduce MSW particle size circle5 Air/density separator circle5 Heavy fraction exits bottom circle5 90% of ferrous removed in magnetic separator circle5 66% of aluminum removed in eddy current aluminum separator circle5 Light fraction, mostly organic, exits the top circle5 Cyclone removes particulates
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Pyrolysis/Gasification circle5 Exothermic reactions in oxidative zone circle5 High temperature endothermic reactions in the reduction zone circle5 In the absence of oxygen circle5 Produces two products circle5 synthetic gas circle5 slag
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Synthesis Gas circle5 Molar composition circle5 Carbon monoxide – 40% circle5 Hydrogen – 24% circle5 Carbon dioxide – 24% circle5 Other gases – 12% circle5 Typically produced from coal or hydrocarbons circle5 Syngas composition can be altered depending on desired end product
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Product Options
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Product Selection circle5 Criteria circle5 Profitability based on NPW and IRR circle5 Varied MSW capacity circle5 Current and Future Market circle5 Estimated using information in literature and current journals circle5 Total Capital Investment circle5 Product Price circle5 Operating Cost
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Economic Assumptions circle5 Total Capital Investment
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