Municipal Solid Waste Processing-Powerpoint presentation

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Unformatted text preview: Municipal Solid Waste: Municipal A Solution to the Growing Problem Solution Jessica Beard Brant Bennett Jason Black Adam Bymaster Alex Ibanez Purpose Purpose • Investigate and select an alternative method of MSW disposal • Design a waste processing plant • Advance the previous deterministic model to optimize a construction and expansion timeline • Select a feasible investment strategy Today’s Agenda Today 1. MSW in the United States - City selection - Waste disposal methods 2. Pyrolysis Processing Plant 3. Producing Hydrogen from Synthetic Gas - Other possible end products 4. MSW Processing Plant Capital Costs 5. Deterministic Model 6. Results 7. Ownership Background Background • Municipal Solid Waste in the United States – Composition – Waste Disposal MSW Production and Disposal, 1960-2001 Million Tons Per Year 250 200 150 100 50 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 Year MSW Produced MSW Disposed 2000 Waste Disposal in the U.S. Waste Combustion 14.7% Recovery 29.7% Landfilling 55.6% Recovery Landfilling Combustion • Close to 210 million tons of MSW per year • Methods – Landfilling – Incineration – Pyrolysis – Recycling City Selection • Cities Considered: – New York City, New York – Los Angeles, California – Detroit, Michigan – Hilo, Hawaii • Basis of Analysis – Amount of MSW produced – Population and Population growth – Cost of current disposal method Municipal Solid Waste Produced – NYC—Transporting MSW – Detroit—Incineration and Landfilling – Hilo—Transporting MSW and Landfilling – Los Angeles—Landfilling Municipal Solid Waste Produced 50000 45000 40000 M S W to n s /d a y • Total MSW Generation • Recycling Rates • Waste Disposal Methods 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 New York City Los Angeles Detroit City Hilo Population Population Metropolitan Area of City 25 P o p u la tio n ( M illio n ) 20 15 10 5 0 New York City Los Angeles Detroit City Hilo • Metropolitan Area Populations • NYC has largest metropolitan population • Hilo has a population under a million Population Growth Population Population Growth 20 18 16 P e r c e n t G r o w th • Hilo has the largest population growth but very small population • New York also has large population growth • Detroit has smallest population growth 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 New York City Los Angeles City Detroit Hilo Price to Dispose of MSW Price Price to Dispose of MSW 80 70 60 P r ic e ( $ ) 50 40 30 20 10 0 New York City Detroit Hilo City Los Angeles • Average Prices • New York Fresh Kills Landfill Closed— Transporting Waste Out of State • Cost of Incineration High • Hilo Running Out of Space • West Coast Has More Space than East Cost Location Choice… Location • New York City: – Price to Dispose of MSW: $63.30 – Population of Metropolitan Area: 22 million – Amount of MSW in Metro: 46,000 tons/day – Landfilling in NYC • Prevention of landfilling in high density NYC • 9 private and 23 public landfills—capacity of 60 million tons • 17 companies with three year base contracts and two 1 year extensions Disposal Methods Disposal • Methods Considered – Landfilling – Incineration – Pyrolysis • Basis of Analysis – Cost to build and operate – Environmental Concerns – Production of Products Landfilling Landfilling • Advantages – Small Capital Investment – Little Maintenance – Cheaper Disposal Fees • Disadvantages – Environmental Pollution • Methane Carbon Dioxide • Leachate – Property Decrease in Value Source: http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/Landfills.htm Incineration Incineration • Advantages – Minimizes Landfill Volume – Recovery of Energy • Disadvantages – High Building and Operation Costs – Air Emissions – Toxic Ash Source: http://www.meniscusclients.com/portfolio/cwa/tech_info.htm Pyrolysis Pyrolysis • Advantages – Minimizes Landfill Volume – Recovery of Energy – Production of Synthetic Gas • Disadvantages – Air Emissions— – Leachate – Slag—Landfilled or used in road foundations Method Choice… Method • Pyrolysis – Land Constraints in NYC – Production of Syngas • Mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 • Can lead to production of synthetic fuels, hydrogen, ammonia, alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids Pyrolysis Process Pyrolysis • Why Separate Before Pyrolysis? – Enhance Profit / Reduce Costs • Sell Recyclable Metals; Low Heat Value • Reduce Wear and Tear on Equipment • Easier Than Separation After Pyrolysis – Control Refuse Properties • Slag Seals Refuse if Proper Proportions Front End Separation Front Purox Feed Energy 13.8x109 Btu/D Waste Energy 13.9x109 Btu/D Purox Pyrolysis Facility Purox Desulfurization Desulfurization Wastewater Plant Wastewater Oxygen Plant Oxygen Oxygen Plant (cont.) Oxygen • Air Separation – 78.1% N2, 20.9% O2, 0.934% Ar, 0.035% CO2 • 280 TPD O2 = 1 Purox Reactor Purox • Equipment: Compressor, Heat Exchanger, Distillation Columns Oxygen Plant (cont.) Oxygen • Purpose: – Eliminate Nitrous Oxides • Environmental aspects – Increases concentration of reactants – Raise reactor temperature to effectively destroy toxins End Product Possibilities End • • • • • • • Hydrogen Ammonia Polycarbonates Synthetic Fuel Methanol Dimethyl Ether Acetic Acid End Product Possibilities End • Hydrogen Uses: fuel cells, alternative fuels, petroleum industry applications (1) CH4 + 2 H2O (2) CO + H2O 4 H2 + CO2 CO2 + H2 CO Sale Price: $2500/ton End Product Possibilities End • Ammonia Uses: fertilizers, refrigeration, processing N2 + H 2 2 NH3 NH Sale Price: $200/ton -using H2 ($2500/ton) and N2 ($160/ton) End Product Possibilities End • Polycarbonates Uses: drink bottles, CD/DVD substrates, audio/video cassettes (1) CO2 + H2 CO + H2O CO (2) 2 NaCl + CO 2 Na + Phosgene Na (3) Phosgene + bisphenyl-A Polycarbonate + 2 HCl Polycarbonate Sale Price: $66/ton (HCl $72/ton) -using H2 ($2500/ton) -using bisphenyl-A ($2000/ton) and NaCl ($46/ton) End Product Possibilities End • Synthetic Fuel Uses: diesel fuel, waxes CO + 2 H2 CH2 + H2O CH Sale Price: $630/ton - using H2 ($2500/ton) End Product Possibilities End • Methanol Potential Uses: MTBE, DME, (1) CO + H2O (2) CO + 2H2 (3) CO2 + 3H2 CO2 + H2 CO CH3OH CH CH3OH + H2O CH Sale Price: $254/ton - using H2 ($2500/ton) End Product Possibilities End • Dimethyl Ether Uses: alternative fuel (developing countries) (1) 3 CO + 3 H2 (2) 2 CO + 4 H2 CH3OCH3 + CO2 CH CH3OCH3 + H2O CH Sale Price: $109/ton - using H2 ($2500/ton) End Product Possibilities End • Acetic Acid Uses: photo film, vinyl acetate, vinegar CH3OH + CO CH3COOH CH Sale Price: $800/ton - results from CH3OH that results from H2 ($2500/ton) End Product Comparison End 2500 2000 1500 Sale Price ($/ton) Price ($/ton MSW) Revenue ($ MM/yr) 1000 500 0 Hydrogen Ammonia Synthetic Fuel Methanol Polycarbonates Product Possibilities Product • • • • • • • Ammonia Polycarbonates Synthetic Fuel Methanol Dimethyl Ether Acetic Acid Hydrogen Synthetic Gas Synthetic Component Composition H2 12.5% CO 20.8% CH4 5.7% H20 47.9% CO2 12.5% N2 0.6% Hydrogen Plant Hydrogen H2O H2O CO2 CO, CO2, CH4, N2 99.999% Pure H2 Syngas Steam Reformation Water-Gas Shift CO2 Removal Pressure Swing Adsorption Steam Reformation Steam 33.8 MM Btu/hr P = 20 atm CH4 + H2O T=1600 °F 3H2 + CO CO + H2O CO2 + H2 OVERALL REACTION: CH4 + 2H2O CO2 + 4H2 ∆HRX = 84,000 Btu/lbmol • • • • • Coal fired furnace Heat Load of 140 Million Btu/hr Steam:Methane = 8 170 tubes, 5-in ID, 40 ft. long 380,000 lbs Nickel-Alumina Catalyst Hydrogen Plant Hydrogen Syngas: 24% H2 39.9% CO 10.9% CH4 56% H2 Steam Reformation 15.8% CO 0.1% CH4 24% CO2 26.9% CO2 1.2% N2 0.9% N2 3050 lbmol/hr 4380 lbmol/hr 36.8 MM Btu/hr Water-Gas Shift Water • 9.8 MM Btu/hr CO + H2O CO2 + H2 • • • • 300,000 lbs Chromiapromoted iron catalyst Steam:CO = 8 4 X 36ft reactors – 100 tubes – 3-in ID 2 X Heat Exchangers Flash Drum Hydrogen Plant Hydrogen H2O H2O 62.3% H2 56% H2 15.8% CO 0.1% CH4 26.9% CO2 0.9% N2 4380 lbmol/hr Water-Gas Shift 1.5% CO 0.1% CH4 0.2% H2O 35.2% CO2 0.8% N2 4960 lbmol/hr CO2 Removal CO Hydrogen Plant Hydrogen 62.3% H2 96.4% H2 1.5% CO 2.3% CO 0.1% CH4 0.2% H2O CO2 Removal 0.2% CH4 0.2% H2O 35.2% CO2 0% CO2 0.8% N2 1.2% N2 4960 lbmol/hr 3203 lbmol/hr Pressure Swing Adsorption Pressure W=5551.58 HP W=1022.2 HP Hydrogen Plant Hydrogen 96.4% H2 2.3% CO 0.2% CH4 0.2% H2O 0% CO2 1.2% N2 3203 lbmol/hr Pressure Swing Adsorption 99.99% Pure Hydrogen 3090 lbmol/hr MSW Processing Plant MSW Capital Costs • Based on plant processing 1500 TPD MSW • Capital Investment – Purox Pyrolysis Plant – Hydrogen Production Plant • Production Costs – Operating Costs – Transportation Costs Purox Pyrolysis Capital Costs Purox 1975 2004 $ millions $ millions Construction 47.1 126.9 Interest during construction 4.30 11.59 Startup Costs 2.56 6.90 Working Capital 1.56 4.21 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT 55.5 149.6 Item Hydrogen Capital Costs Hydrogen Steam Reformation $5,727,400 Steam Reformer Water-Gas Shift Compressor $2,000,000 High Temp. Reactor X 4 $1,029,776 Heat Exchanger Flash Drum CO2 Removal $8,000 $112,000 Stripper $1,694,000 Turbine $312,000 Slump Tank $26,000 Compressor X 4 $964,000 Flash Drum X 3 $126,000 CO2 Storage Tank $3,400,000 Pump $114,000 Refrigerator $485,000 PSA stuff PSA $2,201,000 Storage/Production Compressor $3,000,000 Heat Exchanger Storage Tanks X 12 Total Equipment Costs $1,500 $3,700,000 $24,900,676 Waste to Hydrogen TCI Waste & Production Costs • TCI of Plant – $300 million • Production Costs – $56 million/year – Utilities, Catalysts, Labor – Do not account for transportation costs Deterministic Model Deterministic • Advance the previous deterministic model • New additions: – Refined Plant Investment & Production Costs – Allowed plants to expand by incorporating new capital costs – Updated contracts and locations – Developed new transportation costs Refined Plant Investment & Refined Production Costs $600 2,500 $500 y = 0.1356x - 20.722 TP C , M illions FCI, millions $ 2,000 1,500 1,000 $400 y = 0.0358x - 3.9913 $300 $200 500 $100 0 $0 0 5000 10000 Capacity, TPD Scaled Up TCI 15000 0 5000 10000 15000 Capacity, TPD Scaled Up Operating Costs Contracts & Locations Contracts • Updated contracts – Many contracts recently expired • Reconfigured mileage – Account for highways and driving times – More accurate mileage from transfer location to possible facilities Plant Transportation Costs Plant MSW Semi-Dump Trucks •• MSW Trucks – – – – Capacity = 15 tons of waste (waste / day) $80,000trucksMSW = # each (Capacity * (# trips / day)) Mileage = 6 miles/gallon MSWtrucks Lifetime = 1MM miles + •• H2 TankerTrucks H2 Tanker Trucks (H / day) 2 produced – Capacity = 4.5 = # trucksH tons hydrogen (Capacity – Tube Trailer = $340,000H trucks * (# trips / day)) – Truck Cab = $110,000 2 2 Private Enterprise Private • Private – Model will determine profitability based on NPW – Determine if ROI is greater than 10% – Raise money through investors • Public as an alternative – Raise money through municipal bonds – Model will determine minimum disposal fee with out process losing money Mathematical Model Mathematical • Pre-determined Factors – Process: Pyrolysis – Final Product: Hydrogen • Implement deterministic, stochastic mathematical model for logistic planning Material Balances, Objectives, & Constraints Pyrolysis- TCI & Operating Cost Hydrogen- TCI Deterministic Model Processing/ Production Plant Ownership Private Size/Capacity Public Expansions at time t, plant j Location Consumers Transportation Transfer of wastes from transfer station to plant Transfer of products to consumers Importance of Model Importance • Aid in planning of process – Implement and control the most efficient and costeffective flow of materials in relation to time – Account for current MSW disposal contracts – Encompass transport of MSW and final products – Execute the right number, location, and capacity of plants – Incorporate expansions in relation to time, money, and the amount of trash Private Plant Locations Private Hempstead, NY Islip, NY Babylon, NY Oxford, NJ Charlespoint, NY Huntington, NY Private: Annual Waste Processed Private: compared to Waste Available 4.50 4.00 • • 3.50 By 2014, 86% of MSW is 3.00 processed Over2.50year span, 78% of 20 MSW available is processed 2.00 197 MSW Semi-Trucks 1.50 MM tons/y • 1.00 Waste Processed 0.50 Waste Available 0.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 year 13 15 17 19 Private: Waste Processed/ Private: Expansions at Each Plant 2500 Amount of Waste Processed (tons/day) 2000 1500 Oxford, NJ Hempstead, NY Islip, NY Babylon, NY Huntington, NY Charlespoint, NY 1000 500 0 1 07 2 08 3 09 Year 4 10 5 13 6 15 Private: Revenue Private: and Operating Costs 1200 1000 ($MM/y) 800 Total Revenue 600 Total Operating Costs 400 200 0 2007 2012 2017 year 2022 2027 Private: Cumulative Cash Private: $5 $4 • • • • • Total Capital Investment (20 $3 years)= $2.0 MMM NPW (20 years)= $198 MM $2 Return on Investment $1 = 12.5% 508 Hydrogen Tankers $0 Disposal Fee $45/ton 2007 2012 Saves City of -$1 York over New $54MM/y $MMM/y • 2017 -$2 year 2022 2027 Investment Strategy • Private Feasible – Total Capital Investment (20 years) =$2.0 MMM – NPW (20 years) =$198 MM – Return on Investment =12.5% Public as an Alternative Public Plant Locations Public Hempstead, NY Islip, NY Babylon, NY Oxford, NJ Charlespoint, NY Huntington, NY Public: Cumulative Cash Public: $3.50 Cash Savings($MM/year $3.00 $2.50 $2.00 $1.50 $1.00 $0.50 B1 B2 B3 $0.00 2007 -$0.50 2012 2017 -$1.00 -$1.50 year 2022 2027 Public: Cumulative Cash Public: with Bonds $3.00 Cash Savings($MM/year $2.50 $2.00 $1.50 $1.00 B1 B2 B3 $0.50 $0.00 2007 -$0.50 2012 2017 -$1.00 year 2022 2027 Public: Bonds Public: All bonds are 10 year bonds at 4% interest • Total Amount in Bonds = $1.14 MMM • Bond 1 Interest Paid = $5.5MM • Total – Amount issued in 2007 = $974 MM – Pay off amount (w/interest) = $1.44 MMM • Bond 2 – Amount issued in 2011 = $136 MM – Pay off amount (w/interest) = $201 MM • Bond 3 – Amount issued in 2014 = $30 MM – Pay off amount (w/interest) = $44 MM Public: Annual Waste Processed Public: compared to Waste Available 4.50 4.00 • • • • 3.50 By 2015, 84% of MSW is processed3.00 Lifetime 69% waste processed 2.50 No taxes 2.00 Fee charged to city $35/ton saves 1.50 city $75 MM/y TCI = $1.91.00 MMM Waste Processed MM tons/y • 0.50 Waste Available 0.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 year 13 15 17 19 21 Questions ...
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