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SOLAR REDUCTION OF CO2-SUMMARY - Solar Reduction of CO2 By...

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1 Solar Reduction of CO 2 By: Oreofe Adesina, Kemi Harris, John Long, Amy Robertson, Shane Steagall Capstone Design Project- University of Oklahoma - Spring 2003 I. INTRODUCTION The reduction of carbon dioxide with solar energy has been investigated as a means to reduce the amount of this green house gas in the atmosphere. This report examines the prospect of solar reduction of carbon dioxide and outlines the implementation of such a system. Project goals include lowering carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and producing viable products. According to the reaction, these possible products from this process are carbon monoxide, oxygen and carbon dioxide CO 2 + hv, heat CO + ½ O 2 The tasks involved with this project include the following: (1) Determining a method of separating the CO 2 from the flue gas (2) Optimizing the efficiency of the reduction process (3) Determining the most profitable utilization of products (4) Maximizing the profit of the overall process The San Juan power plant in Farmington, New Mexico has been chosen as the location for the proposed CO 2 reduction process. This area of New Mexico receives enough days of sunlight to supply solar energy for the process. The plant produces 14.5 million tons of CO 2 per year and is a major contributor to CO 2 emissions in the area. II. PROCESS OVERVIEW FLUE GAS FEED CO TO SALE CO 2 TO SALE CO 2 PURIFICATION SYSTEM REACTOR SYSTEM COOLING/ ENERGY RECOVERY CO PURIFICATION SYSTEM CO 2 QUENCH STREAM FLUE GAS TO ATMOSPHERE ig Figure 1: Process schematic
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2 After the fossil fuel has been burnt to produce power, the CO 2 is separated from flue gas. Studies of a number of types of separation processes have been conducted including amine scrubbing using MEA, adsorption, cryogenic processing, and membrane separation. For the separation of CO2 from flue gas, the amine based absorption process was chosen. The complete proposed process for the conversion of CO2 to CO and O2 is shown in Figure 1. Chemical absorption using MEA is a proven technology for the removal of CO 2 from flue gas streams and has been used in industry for several decades. The flue gas is scrubbed with monoethanolamine (MEA) in an absorption column and the solvent, which is rich in CO 2 is regenerated in a stripper with steam to give a high purity CO 2 product (Figure 2). In the absorption process, the flue gas is initially cooled. It is necessary to remove the sulfur oxides because concentrations of SO x above 10 ppmv can cause degradation of the MEA solvent by reacting to form corrosive, non-reclaimable salts. Thus, a spray scrubber with a mist eliminator (for SO 3 removal) utilizing caustic soda or soda ash is employed to meet the 10 ppmv requirement. After SO x scrubbing, the flue gas is passed into an absorption column where it contacts the amine solution counter- currently. The amine solution absorbs the CO 2 from the gas through a reaction, which produces a weakly bonded intermediate. The CO 2 -rich amine solution is then pumped from the bottom of the absorber to the lean-rich heat exchanger. Here, the solution is
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SOLAR REDUCTION OF CO2-SUMMARY - Solar Reduction of CO2 By...

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