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SUPER BATTERY-POWERPOINT - Super Batteries Final...

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Unformatted text preview: Super Batteries Final Presentation Presentation Outline Presentation Project Goal Project The basics of batteries The How a battery works How Why use super batteries Why Market Analysis Market Battery synthesis Battery Plant Location Plant Transportation Transportation Environmental Impact Environmental Life Cycle Analysis Life Economic Analysis Economic Conclusions Conclusions Project Goal Project Design a plant to make ingredients for super Design iron batteries The Basics of The Batteries Definition: Definition: Batteries are devices that translate chemical energy into electrical energy Standard AAA Dimensions Standard Battery Basics Battery The 7 basic parts The – A) Container – B) Collector – C) Electrodes – D) Cathode – E) Anode – F) Electrolyte – G) Separator Constructing the Battery Constructing Start with an empty Start steel can – the battery container. Constructing the Battery Constructing A cathode mix of cathode Super-Iron carrying a naturally occurring positive electrical charge is molded to the inside wall of the empty container. Constructing the Battery Constructing A separator paper is separator inserted to keep the cathode from touching the anode. Constructing the Battery Constructing The anode, which The carries a negative electrical charge, and potassium hydroxide electrolyte are then pumped into each container. Constructing the Battery Constructing The brass pin, which The forms the negative current collector, is inserted into the battery, which is then sealed and capped. How a battery works How Separator OH- K+ Anode Cathode Zn → Zn 2+ + 2 e- Fe (VI) + 3 e- → Fe (III) Advantages of Iron (VI) Advantages Advantages: Energy Storage Advantages: Including a iron Including (VI) cathode in a standard battery increases the energy storage capacity by 50%. Our Choice of Cathode Our Our choice of Our cathode material is based on cost and performance. 65 wt % Na2FeO4 65 5 wt % KMnO4 wt 30 wt % CFx 30 Advantages: Advantages: Environmental Standard Alkaline Standard Battery : 2MnO2 + Zn → ZnO +Mn2O3 2Mn- +2e- → 2Mn2Zn → Zn2+ + 2e- Super Battery Discharge Super Reaction: Na2Fe(VI)O4 + Zn → Fe(III)2O3 + ZnO + Na2ZnO2 Fe(VI)6+ + 3e- → Fe(III)3+ Zn → Zn2+ + 2e- Market analysis Market Market Analysis Market The most important objective of a company: To make profit The most important person in a company: The consumer A strategic plan defines a company’s overall mission and objectives. The goal is to build strong and profitable connections with consumers. Points of Sale Points Provides enough power to last 50% longer than Provides traditional AAA batteries and 200% longer in high drain applications (Licht) Contains fewer toxic metals than traditional batteries Contains and its super iron cathode degenerates into environmentally friendly rust Will sell for a competitive price to the AAA batteries Will already on the market Competitors? Competitors? SuperBattery’s total capital investment: $472,000 Energizer’s total capital investment: $3 billion Conclusion: SuperBattery’s market is 0.01% the size of Energizer’s market Market Analysis Market Segmentation of Market The process of niching offers smaller companies the opportunity to compete by focusing their limited resources on serving niches overlooked by larger competitors. Market Analysis Market Consumers are grouped and served in various Consumers ways based on the following factors: – Geographic – Demographic – Psychographic – Behavioral – Social-Cultural Special Interest Groups Special Market Analysis Market Geographic Segmentation Geographic A profitable company must pay attention to geographical differences in needs and wants. Demographic Segmentation Demographic Demographic segmentation divides the markets into groups based on variables such as age, gender, family size, family life cycle, income, occupation, education, religion, race, and nationality Segmentation Variables Segmentation Geographic World region or country: US Country region: Pacific, East South Central, East North Central, New England, Middle Atlantic City or Metro size: 500,000-1,000,000; 1,000,0004,000,000; 4,000,000 or over Density: Urban Climate: Northern, Southern Segmentation Variables Segmentation Demographic Age: Under 6, 6-11, 20-34, 35-49 Gender: Male, Female Family Size: 1-2, 3-4, 5+ Family Life Cycle: Young, single; young, married, no children; young, married, children; older, married, children; older, married, no children; older, single Income: $50,000-over Occupation: Professional and technical; managers; officials, and proprietors; clerical, and sales; supervisors, students, homemakers; volunteer workers Education: High school graduate, some college, college graduate Generation: Generations X,Y,Z, echo boomer Race: N/A Market Analysis Market Demographics come into play here because different ideas appeal to different groups consisting of different characteristics. Market Analysis Market ADOPTER CHARACTERIZATION BREAKDOWN 34% Early Majority 34% Late Majority 16% Laggards 13.5% Early Adopters 2.5% Innovators Time of adoption of innovation Adopter Characterization Adopter Innovators – young, better educated, higher income; Innovators venturesome Early Adopters – leaders in the community; adopt Early new ideas early but carefully; trendsetters Early Majority – deliberate; adopt new ideas before Early the average person Late Majority – skeptical; older in age and wait until Late the reviews are massively published Laggards – tradition bound and brand loyal; won’t Laggards change until the new trend becomes tradition Market Analysis Market Large market appeals to the idea of Large MORE POWER FOR YOUR MONEY Segmentation for a small new company leads to Segmentation THE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY BATTERY Population Characteristics Population City National Average Austin, TX Seattle, WA Portland, OR San Francisco, CA Charlotte, NC NYC, NY Washington, DC Population 52,000 587,900 537,200 503,600 746,800 520,800 7,428,200 519,000 Economical Demographics Economical City Cost of Living Index Median Income ($) Per Capita Income($) 100 53,475 20,710 Austin, TX Seattle, WA 102.9 135.7 50,179 50,993 20,118 26,516 Portland, OR 127 51,156 20,030 San Francisco, CA 209.5 74,773 27,727 Charlotte, NC 108.3 58,713 21,862 NYC, NY 189.1 60,765 24,877 Washington, DC 120.9 65,083 26,855 National Average SF Demographics SF 8.2% children ages 5-14 8.2% 48% ages 20-45 48% 44.3% of all families having children 44.3% 45.6% of all families young and single 45.6% 1.7% unemployment rate 1.7% 56.8% making $50,000 and over per household 56.8% Cost Comparison Cost BATTERY PRICES ACCORDING TO CVS PHARMACIES City Sales Tax AAA Duracell AAA Duracell (%) 4pk ($) 8pk ($) National Average 5.42 N/A N/A Austin, TX 8.05 3.17 5.89 Seattle, WA 8.35 3.39 6.09 Portland, OR 0.00 2.99 5.89 San Francisco, CA 8.25 4.99 8.79 Charlotte, NC NYC, NY Washington, DC 6.15 8.25 5.75 3.19 4.59 3.79 5.89 8.69 6.49 Cost Comparison Cost CVS Pharmacy has a standard markup for all CVS batteries – about 25% According to the price list above, San According Francisco has the highest cost of batteries Duracell sells their batteries to CVS Pharmacy Duracell for about $1.00/battery CAN SUPER BATTERY COMPARE? Cost Comparison Cost For Super Battery to be cost competitive, a battery For must be sold for $1.00/battery The cost per battery for production is $0.86 The $0.14 profit per battery is about 16% $0.14 If a higher profit margin is needed, extra investment If would have to be dumped into advertisements and promotions stressing the environmental aspect of the battery Economics will discuss this in further detail Economics Battery Synthesis Battery Cathode Synthesis Cathode Battery Design: Cathode Battery Top Cross-Sectional View of Battery: Anode Cathode Separator The cathode is the The material between the casing and the separator. The volume of the The cathode is an estimated 49 % of the battery interior. Cathode Challenge Cathode To create a cathode based on Iron (VI). To This process has never been completed This on an industrial scale. Very little information exists concerning Very the chemical characteristics of Iron (VI) and its different compounds. Chemists vs. Engineers Chemists Chemists vs. Engineers Chemists Chemists: Cathode synthesis scaledChemists: up directly from laboratory work: Weekly Cost: $4,889,000 Engineers: Modifications throughout Engineers: cathode synthesis: Weekly Cost: $39,600 Iron (VI) Super Battery Cathode Iron Mass Breakdown of Cathode Mass Components: – 2.38 g Na2FeO4 – 0.183 g KMnO4 – 1.098 g CFx – 3.66 mL KOH (13.5 M) Cathode Synthesis PFD Cathode Fe(NO3)3·9H2O + 3/2NaClO + 5NaOH Na2FeO4 + 3/2NaCl + 3NaNO3 + 23/2 H2O Mixing Process Anode Synthesis Anode Anode Synthesis: Why? Anode Provide low cost negative electrodes at a high voltage Provide Low weight addition to battery Low Lowest possible oxidation state for anode material Lowest High discharge capability High Not susceptible to corrosion in saturated KOH to Not stabilize iron (VI) The alternative cadmium or mercury additives may be The cheaper, but not environmentally friendly Common Methods Common Using pure zinc metallic powder mixed with Using electrolyte Problem: hydrogen is generated by the zinc and causes a corrosion reaction – leads to increased pressure inside the battery and electrolyte leak Kneading zinc powder, gel forming materials and Kneading magnesium with a small amount of water Problem: Too much time for electrolyte to penetrate into the zinc electrode paste Common Method Common Using a mixture of pure zinc and either Using indium, aluminum, or lead to prevent corrosion Problem: Inability of the zinc paste to hold it’s shape in the battery which lead to leakage and early loss of charge capability Zinc History Zinc 1982 Jones US Patent 4358517 explains the effectiveness of 1982 using carbon hydroxide mixed with potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte solution 1990 JP 227729/89 discussed the role of a gelling agent such 1990 as carboxymethyl cellulose Problem: With time, the electrode falls out of gel state due to its large specific gravity or contact between zinc particles become unstable Ten years ago the method involved an addition of mercury in Ten order to prevent corrosion Problem: Environmentally Unacceptable Zinc History Zinc 1996 Charkey US Patent 4084047 discusses 1996 beneficial oxide additives that enhance electrode conductivity, particularly Bi2O3 Goals Goals – Minimize the shape change – Provide a stable construction to achieve prolonged cycle life – Improved capacity under heavy current discharge loads and low temperature – Improved stability during storage – Maximum energy density – Avoid toxicity to the environment – To provide the highest utilization of the iron (VI) electrode as possible in order to be cost effective Anode Synthesis Anode Mass Breakdown per Battery: 0.554 g of calcium oxide 0.554 1.4674 g of zinc oxide (volume fraction 0.51 ZnO:0.32 CaO) 1.4674 0.1523 g of bismuth oxide 0.1523 0.2547 g of hydroxy-et cellulose (10%wt) 0.2547 0.1247 g PTFE (known as the binder, 5%wt) 0.1247 2.5472 mL KOH 2.5472 Components Components Zinc Oxide Zinc – important material for obtaining good dispersion in a short time – Ability to absorb large quantities of electrolyte solution between particles – Has high capability to combine the particles of the zinc electrode material with electrolyte Calcium Oxide Calcium – Shown to significantly improve performance by maintaining stability (preventing migration) in order to hold the capacity of the battery longer – Reduce the solubility of active material through formation of CaZn2(OH)6 Components Components Bismuth Oxide Bismuth – Provides a conductive matrix which is more electropositive than zinc – Easily reduced to metal – Considered an inorganic inhibitor PTFE PTFE – Binder aids in connecting all the elements – Enhances oxygen recombination with the formation of calcium zincates at the zinc electrode – Affinity for reacting with oxygen – Aids in rapid oxygen recombination during discharge Anode Synthesis Anode ZnO Dryer Mixer CaO ZnO Et-OH cellulose Bi2O3 PTFE H2 O Stirrer Zinc Paste Reasoning Reasoning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Metallic oxide (calcium oxide) adds stability without altering other components of the battery Capable of keeping the low oxidation level necessary High life cycle Good rate capability Excellent mechanical characteristics Capable of mass production Components Components Casing Material Casing 304 Cold Rolled Stainless Steel 304 - manufactured in a variety of shapes and sizes cheaply - Durable with high corrosion resistance Circular cylindrical fabricated as a deep drawn can - Reduces the number of fabrication processes - Enhances the case integrity - Allows for less variation in the diameter - Produces better quality welds increasing shelf-life Casing Material Casing Battery Dimensions (AAA) Wall thickness-.635 mm Wall Length – 44.5 mm Length Diameter – 10. 5mm Diameter Header Material Header Glass-to-metal sealed Glass electric terminal Fit is important to obtain Fit high quality welding Thickness – 3.175 mm Thickness Ultrasonic Metal Welding Ultrasonic Cold-phase friction welding technique Cold Surfaces subjected to high frequency oscillations Surfaces while being rubbed together under pressure Molecules on the surfaces mix with one another, Molecules creating a firm bond Weld cycles typically under one-half seconds Weld allowing high productivity rates Separator Separator Microporous membrane Microporous Prevents contact between the Prevents positive and negative electrode Allows ions to move freely between Allows the anode and the cathode without internal shorts Insulator Insulator Permeablility, strength, ability to Permeablility maximize ionic conductivity Collector Collector Electrical connection between the porous cathode and Electrical the positive terminal of the battery Brass pin Brass - 20 mm long, 1.5 mm diameter - Brass is a high purity homogeneous alloy - good corrosion resistance - high surface quality that minimizes the formation of hydrogen inside the battery Construction Process Construction Packaging Packaging Ensure product quality Ensure Important role in the marketing Important strategy Sleek plastic cylinders made from Sleek ecologically friendly recyclable and reusable materials Self-contained shipper that Self doubles as a floor display Uses 40 percent less shelf space Uses than that of other battery suppliers Plant Location Plant Plant Location Plant Shipping Cost -Import Raw Materials - Export Complete Super Battery Raw Materials Raw Fort Harrison, NJ Bethlehem, PA Catoosa, OK Locations Considered Locations Philadelphia, PA Portland, OR Indianapolis, IN Oakland, CA Wichita, KS Charlotte, NC Shipping Costs Shipping Transportation Costs $1,200 $1,061 $1,166 $1,046 $974 $922 $903 $1,000 Oakland, CA Portland, OR $800 Wichita, KS Cost (dollars) Indiana, Indianapolis $600 Philladelphia, PA Charlotte, NC $400 $200 $0 Location Factors Considered Factors Utilities Property Tax Sales Tax Wichita, KS 105.4 11.5% 5.30% Indianapolis, IN 98.9 13.8% 6% Philadelphia, PA 144.5 25.4% 6% Charlotte, NC 97.2 12.4% 4.50% The plant will be located in Charlotte, NC. Transportation Transportation Different Modes of Different Transportation Rail Rail 20, 50, or even 100 carload 20, movements lacks flexibility to service all lacks markets deliveries can vary by a number deliveries of days ability to move large quantities ability long distances long relatively low cost relatively Different Modes of Different Transportation Trucking Trucking High-speed intercity High movement Smaller shipments Smaller More-frequent More deliveries Trucking Trucking Trucking makes up Trucking 15% of all vehicles on US roadways. Truck Safety 100% 80% Trucking involved in Trucking only 3% of accidents. 60% 40% All other vehicles 20% Trucks 0% Environment Environment Method to Protect Method Environment The most effective measure in preserving our The environment is not to react to environmental accidents, but to prevent accidents and spills. Sources of Environmental Harm Sources Point Source Pollution (PS) Point – Spills or disposal into local sewer. Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS) Non – Uncontrolled spills or disposal into surrounding environment. Preventing Environmental Harm Preventing Prevention during….. Prevention – Receiving hazardous materials. – Fabrication – Plant transportation – Storage – Disposal Non-Point Source Spill (NPS) Non Prevention Preventing truck incidents with Camel Fiberglass DrivePreventing Thru Systems – Contain a 500 gallon spill Non-Point Spill (NPS) Prevention Non Preventing rail incidents with the “Star Track” system Preventing Contain a 500 gallon spill. Contain Non-Point Spill (NPS) Prevention Non Chemically resistant polyurethane box curds are installed around the parameter Non-Point Source Spill (NPS) Non Prevention Transportation within the plant Transportation Point source (PS) pollution Point prevention Conical plug drain seal and drain protector safety seal Storage Color Code Storage Blue: Poison Blue: Red: Flammable liquid Red: Yellow: Store away from Yellow: flammable or combustible materials (oxidizers) White: Store in a corrosion-proof White: area Orange: General chemical storage Orange: Striped: Store individually. Striped: Material is incompatible with other materials in the same color class. Dangers Inside Plant Dangers Potassium Hydroxide, Potassium KOH – POISON! DANGER! CORROSIVE! – Special spill and leak measures inside and outside of plant Occupational Exposure Occupational Limits and Health Hazards Battery Plant Waste Battery Sodium Chloride Sodium – Stable salt that dissolves in water. – No special clean up standards. Sodium Nitrate Sodium – Strong oxidizer – Minor health hazards Disposed of by EcoMat system. Disposed Plant Waste Disposal Plant EcoMat Inc. EcoMat Based in San Based Francisco Bay Area Environmentally Environmentally friendly Recycles nitrates to Recycles nitrogen gas and CO2 EcoMat Inc. EcoMat Environmentally Environmentally friendly Economical Economical Very light maintenance Very Lower chance of Non Lower point source pollution Battery Disposal Waste Battery Potassium Hydroxide KOH Potassium – Same precautions Zinc Zinc – One of the most common elements in the earth's crust. – Most does not dissolve in water. – Minor health hazards Battery Disposal Waste Battery Iron Oxide Fe2O3 Iron Minor health hazards Minor Environmental Effects Environmental – Can make drinking water taste bad, and can stain plumbing fixtures and laundry. – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established secondary drinking-water standards. Battery Disposal Waste Battery Stainless Steel & Brass Stainless – No threat to soil or ground water. – Life Cycle well over 100 years. Life Cycle Analysis Life Cathode Raw Materials Cathode NaOH NaClO Fe(NO3)3 9H2O KMnO4 CFx KOH Fe(NO3)·9H2O + NaClO + 5NaOH → Na2FeO4 + NaCl + H2O Anode Raw Materials Anode ZnO ZnO CaO CaO Bi2O3 Bi Et-hydroxy cellulose Et PTFE PTFE KOH KOH Additional Raw Materials Additional 304 stainless steel header equipped with a 304 glass-to-metal sealed electric terminal Brass Current Collector Brass NFWA Membrane Battery Separator NFWA Battery Production The cathode, anode, separator, shell, and brass The pin are used in the construction of the final super-battery. Battery Production Battery Water Usage: 10.8 mL/battery Water Energy: 0.105 kWhr/battery Energy: Transportation Transportation All raw materials and product All batteries are transported using: LTL Trucking and Cargo Company Battery Usage Battery Standard sized AAA batteries are Standard purchased by consumer. The iron (VI) super-batteries are used in The electronic devices, where the following reaction occurs during cell discharge: Na2Fe(VI)O4 + Zn → Zn Fe(III)2O3 + ZnO + Na2ZnO2 Fe(III) Disposal Disposal The consumer discards the battery in The the trash. Eventually, the discarded superEventually, batteries will be placed into landfills. Economic Analysis Economic Economic Analysis Economic Outline Economic Background Economic Chemists vs. Engineers Chemists Equipment, FCI, TCI Equipment, Profitability Profitability Effect of Capacity on Economics Effect FCI vs. Capacity FCI Risk Analysis Risk Economic Background Economic Economic life of 10 years Economic Operating rate of 40 hrs / week Operating Inflation rate of 4% Inflation Chemists vs. Engineers Chemists FCI: $978,000 FCI: TCI $1,125,000 TCI Weekly Cost: Weekly $4,889,000 NPW $-147,000,000 NPW ROI: -227% ROI: FCI: $411,000 FCI: TCI $472,000 TCI Weekly Cost: Weekly $43,200 NPW $2,750,000 NPW ROI: 79% ROI: Purchased equipment, FCI, TCI Purchased Capacity ~ 50,000 batteries / week Capacity Total Purchased Equipment ~ $82,000 Total Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) ~ $411,000 Fixed Total Capital Investment (TCI) ~ $472,000 Total Equipment Cost Equipment Cathode Equipment Volume (gal) Deionizer Cost ($) $2,526 Tank-1 Carbon Steel (Distilled H2O) 5.28 $20 Tank-2 Carbon Steel (NaClO) 16.09 $25 Tank-3 Carbon Steel (Fe(NO3)3 9H20) 36.60 $30 Tank-4 Carbon Steel (NaOH pellets) 16.58 $25 Tank-5 Carbon Steel (Na2FeO4) 11.64 $20 Tank-6 Carbon Steel (KMnO4) 0.90 $20 Tank-7 Carbon Steel (CFx) 5.58 $20 Tank-8 Carbon Steel (KOH pellets) 17.95 $25 Tank-9 Carbon Steel (Waste Storage) 74.21 $1,426 Reactor-1 69.27 $5,048 Filter-1 Cast iron 69.27 $87 Mixer-1 Steel bhp=2.7 (NaOH) 2.22 $2,259 Mixer-2 Steel bhp=2.7 (KOH) 2.40 $2,259 Mixer-3 Steel bhp=2.7 (Cathode) 4.82 $2,259 Vacuum Dryer-1 $12,000 Equipment Cost Equipment Anode Equipment Volume (gal) Cost ($) Mixer-4 stainless steel – 6 hp 24.95 $3,312 Stirrer-1 stainless steel – 2 hp 10.82 $2,259 Tank-10 Carbon Steel (ZnO) 3.59 $20 Tank-11 Carbon Steel (CaO) 2.15 $20 Tank-12 Carbon Steel (Et-hydroxy) 3.74 $20 Tank-13 Carbon Steel (Bi2O3) 0.23 $20 Tank-14 Carbon Steel (PTFE) 1.12 $20 Tank-15 Carbon Steel 10.83 $20 Vacuum Dryer-4 carbon steel $12,000 Profitability Profitability Total Weekly Cost ~ $43,200 Total Total Weekly Sales ~ $50,000 Total Yearly Cash Flow ~ $373,000 Yearly Net Present Worth (NPW) ~ $2,750,000 Net Return of Investment (ROI) ~ 79% Return Pay Out Time ~ 1 yr and 3 months Pay Economic Analysis Economic Cash flow vs. years $600,000 Cash flow ($) $500,000 $400,000 $300,000 $200,000 $100,000 $0 0 2 4 6 years 8 10 ROI vs. Cost ROI ROI vs. Cost 250% ROI (%) 200% 150% Cost 100% Mark up 50% 0% -50% $0.75 $1.00 $1.25 Cost ($) $1.50 Capacity Effects Capacity EXCEL FCI vs. Capacity FCI vs. Capacity $490,000 FCI ($) $440,000 $390,000 y = 0.6144x + 375307 $340,000 Fixed Costs = $375,000 $290,000 R2 = 0.9884 $240,000 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 Capacity (batteries) Risk Analysis Risk Risk Analysis Risk Based on NPW Based Sensitivity Strauss Plots Sensitivity Product cost, product sales, FCI Product NPW Histogram NPW Sensitivity Strauss Plot Net Present Worth Vs Product Cost Standard Deviation N e t P re s e n t W o rth ( M illio n $ ) $10.0 y = -18.6x + 4.54 $8.0 $6.0 $4.0 $2.0 $0.0 -25.00% -20.00% -15.00% -10.00% -5.00% 0.00% % Change 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Sensitivity Sensitivity Net Present Worth (Million $) Strauss Plot Net Present Worth vs. Sales Standard Deviation $10.0 $8.0 $6.0 $4.0 $2.0 $0.0 -$2.0 -30.00% -20.00% -10.00% y = 23.4x + 4.54 0.00% % Change 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% Sensitivity Sensitivity Strauss Plot Net Present Worth vs. Fixed Capital Investment Standard Deviation N e t P re s e n t W o rth (M illio n $ ) $6.0 $5.0 $4.0 $3.0 y = -4.6x + 4.54 $2.0 $1.0 $0.0 -30.00% -20.00% -10.00% 0.00% % Change 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% NPW Histogram NPW N PW Histogram 30 Frequency 25 20 15 10 5 0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 NPW (Million $) 4.0 5.0 6.0 Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions Lots of potential! Lots Batteries last longer and are more Batteries environmentally friendly Process is profitable Process Challenges & Improvements Challenges Chemists vs. Chemists Engineers Make process Make profitable Very little Very information about Iron (VI) compounds Use mathematical Use model to optimize capacity, plant location, and market Research more on Research Iron (VI) compounds to optimize process Any Questions??? Any ...
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