Vaccines-Presentation

Vaccines-Presentation - Technological & Financial...

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Technological & Financial Analysis of a Carbohydrate Vaccine for Tuberculosis Presented by: Melissa Martin Erica Clemente-Harl
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Tuberculosis Currently: ! Leading cause of death in developing world ! 2 billion infected ! 8 million/year - active TB ! 3 million/year die ! 10-15 million latent in U.S. Projected: ! 37,800,000 of current HIV patients will become active and die in the U.S. ! New Cases: 1 billion 2020 ! 36 million deaths from new infections Vaccine Needed!
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What is Tuberculosis? ! Mycobacterium tuberculosis ! Infection by inhalation ! Contagious when active ! Symptoms: weight loss, fever, appetite loss, cough, chest pain, bloody sputum ! Patients will die within weeks to months without treatment
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New Drugs: Significance ! Drastic effect on population " Lower death rates " Extend life expectancy " Eradicate disease (small pox 1967-73) ! Financial gain ! Personal motivations Romantic view!
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New Drugs: Reality ! Average cost over $400 million from research to consumer ! Strictest protocols for drug approval in U.S. " Food & Drug Administration " Lengthy and tedious process " average = 15 years " Success rate: 5/5,000 potential drugs
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A Researcher&s Concerns ! Will my procedure work? ! How accurate is my theory? ! How can I increase the product yield? ! Can this process be scaled up?
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An Investor&s Concerns ! Amount to invest in research? ! How long will it take? ! Risk of losing money? ! How much can I lose? ! Expected profit? ! What timeframe? ! Failure at any FDA Phase? ! Product price? ! What is the market? ! Advertisement campaign? We can provide simultaneous answers to these questions!
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Project Overview ! Proposal Carbohydrate- based tuberculosis vaccine ! Acknowledgment of technical uncertainties ! Success estimate ! Two directions " How to develop vaccine " Decisions to be made
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Vaccines ! Definition: weakened or killed pathogens or parts of polysaccharides and/or proteins that stimulate immune response ! Benefits of using parts of the organism " Will not cause infection with organism " Stimulates antibody production in body
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Antibody Stimulation Goal ! Antigen recognition ! Engulfing ! Cell death & degradation ! Fragments displayed on cell surface ! Proliferation and activation of T cells ! Antibody circulation
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M. Tuberculosis Cell Wall &Cell growth &Polysaccharide recovery &Cleaving &Conjugation to carrier protein
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Bacterial Growth ! Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATCC 25177 ! Inoculated in Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) plates " Generation time = 6 - 8 weeks ! Transfer to LJ liquid medium " Generation Time = 15 hours ! Deviation: growth time
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Cell Membrane Separation ! Centrifugation " Pellets: 3,000 x g for 20 min " Wash in phosphate- buffered saline " Re-suspend in distilled water ! Sonication " Weakening of the cell wall with electrical pulses " Three cycles of 30 s pulses " Carbohydrate yield: 70-80% ! Centrifugation " 3,000 x g for 20 min ! Supernatant filtration " Separation of the capsule ! Lyophilization (optional) Deviation : sonication cycles As presented by Stokes et al., 2004
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Cell Membrane Cleaving !
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2011 for the course CHE 4273 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Oklahoma State.

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Vaccines-Presentation - Technological & Financial...

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