FinalStudyGuide_2010BIEB128 - Study guide for BIEB 128...

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Unformatted text preview: Study guide for BIEB 128 Final – Fall 2010 As always and in general: Know which orders do what! Insect introductions I & II What is an introduced species? What is an invasive species? Why are biological invasions a problem? What are differences between natural range expansions and human-caused invasions? What are the four main stages of invasion? How do species get introduced? What factors in general determine whether a species will successfully invade? How do ecologists study the spread of introduced species? Why do introduced species become highly abundant? Why do some invasions cause large ecological impacts? Why do some ecologists recommend treating species at risk of introduction “guilty until proven innocent?” With respect to invasions, what is meant by biotic facilitation? Insect – borne diseases I & II What is the difference between mechanical and biological transfer? What are three ways to eliminate insect born diseases? What is a disease reservoir? Why do some insects make good vectors? What is virulence? What is the difference between a horizontally transmitted and a vertically transmitted disease? Why do these forms of transmission often differ in their virulence? What do parasites to manipulate vectors? What do vectors do manipulate parasites? What are some examples of blood-sucking insects? How do scientists know that humans and malaria share an evolutionary history with one another? Why has malaria recently resurged in some parts of the world? What are the main factors that affect malaria epidemiology? What is an arbovirus? What are examples of flaviviruses? Why has dengue fever recently resurged in some parts of the world? Why is this disease a bigger public health threat now than it was 40 years ago? Regarding other insect-borne diseases, what are the vectors and main public health risks? Study guide for BIEB 128 Final – Fall 2010 (continued) Pest management I & II What is an insect pest? How do insects become pests? With respect to pest management, what is the difference between economic injury level and the economic threshold? What are the four main types of pest management? What is IPM? What are the three main types of chemical control? What are advantages and disadvantages of each? What is a non-target effect? What are the four main ways in which insects evolve resistance to pesticides? What are pros and cons of the use of transgenic crops for pest control? What is the “halo effect”? What is biological control? What makes a successful biological control agent? What are the advantages and disadvantages of biological relative to other means of control? What are some examples of non-target effects? How is pest control practiced on organic farms? The pollination crisis Why do bees make such good pollinators? Why do eusocial bees make especially effective pollinators? Why are researchers concerned about the pollination crisis? What is colony collapse disorder? What factors are believed to underlie this problem? What are some reasons why native pollinators are in decline? Insects in a changing climate What are some general ways in which insects might respond to climate change? How might range shifts that have apparently occurred in response to recent climate change be affected by other forms of land-use change? Climate change is expected to alter (and has already altered) high latitudes more than low latitudes. Are insects at high latitudes thus more at risk? How will plant-insect interactions be affected by climate change? Insect conservation What are several classes of factors that in general act to threaten insect populations? How do insects fare under protection by the endangered species act? What are some examples of endangered insects in California? Review session: Thursday (9 Dec) 6-7 pm 1103 Muir biology ...
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