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MT2StudyGuide_2010BIEB128 - Study guide for BIEB 128...

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Unformatted text preview: Study guide for BIEB 128 Midterm 2 – Fall 2010 In general: Know which orders do what ! Reproduction and mating strategies How do insects find mates when they are tiny relative to the environment? Once a potential mate is located, what determines if mating will occur? What is Bateman’s principle? What does it help explain about insect mating behavior and what does it not? What do insects do to compete for mates? Why are insect genitalia so diagnostic at the species level? What is haplo-diploidy? How does Wolbachia maximize transmission of its genes? Life history evolution What is Lack’s solution clutch size? Why does per capita offspring fitness sometimes exhibit a hump-shaped relationship with respect to increasing clutch size? Why are Hymenoptera ideal candidates for the study of sex ratio evolution? What is local mate competition? Under what circumstances do female insects that experience local mate competition lay female biased sex ratios? … male-biased sex ratios? Parasitoids Why are parasitoids important? What insect orders have evolved the parasitoid habit? Which insect orders get parasitized? How do parasitoid find their hosts? How do parasitoids cope with the reliability detection trade off? Do induced defenses attract parasitoids? How do parasitoids assess host suitability? What is superparasitism? What is hyperparasitism? How do hosts ward off parasitoids? What strategies do parasitoids use to circumvent host immune response How do parasitoids keep the host alive while it is being consumed? Plant-insect interactions (2 lectures) How do plants and insects interact positively? … negatively? How do plants benefit from being pollinated? Why do certain insect groups make good pollinators? In specialized plant-pollinator interactions, how do plants manipulate pollinators and vice versa? How do ants benefit plants and vice versa? Types of herbivory: Which orders do what? What are the most diverse groups of plant-feeding insects? How did Terry Irwin generate a provocative estimate of insect diversity? What do plants do to hinder herbivores? Plant-insect interactions (2 lectures) - continued Is co-evolution between plants and herbivores responsible for the great diversity of planteating insects? How can this idea be tested? Does tropical phytophagous insect diversity result from increased numbers of host plants? … increased numbers of herbivore species per host? … increased degrees of host specialization? Insect defense What is crypsis? What are examples of chemical and mechanical defenses? What is aposematism? What is a polyphensim? What are key differences between Batesian and Mullerian mimicry? How would one distinguish between the two forms? How do eyespots represent a form of mimicry that is neither Batesian nor Mullerian? Social Insects (two lectures) What are some advantages and disadvantages of a social existence? What are the main types of social behavior? How is eusociality typically defined? Termites and eusocial Hymenoptera both exhibit “primitive” and “advanced forms. What are some similarities between the two types? What is Hamilton’s Rule? … inclusive fitness? What three factors are generally believed to be important in the evolution of eusociality in the Hymenoptera? … in the ternmites? What is queen manipulation and why might it be important? What is evidence for and against the haplodiploid hypothesis? What is Cryptocercus, and why is it important? Population dynamics (two lectures) What are traits of certain insect species that enable their populations to grow exponentially (at least for short periods of time)? How can one distinguish between factors that are density dependent versus density independent? What is population regulation? What are examples of intrinsic versus extrinsic regulatory factors? How do time delays cause populations to cycle? What role do predators play in the cycles of the southern pine beetle? What is the difference between a cycle and an outbreak? In one popular model of insect outbreaks, what are some reasons why dr/dN > 0 at intermediate population densities? What factors are believed to be involved in lowversus high-density regulation? What are some actual examples of out breaking insects? ...
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