07.+The+Immune+System

07.+The+Immune+System - The Immune System Some History...

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The Immune System Page 1 The Immune System Some History Egypt • The Smith Papyrus (Between 2600 and 2200 BC) - Hieroglyph (G= sacred carving) for Inflammation (L= flame within) • Sh-m-m-t (Possibly Shememet -- Hieroglyphs don ʼ t have Vowels) Greece • Thucydides (430 BC) - Documents 3 Aspects of the Immune System -- Memory, Specificity and Inducibility -- while writing about an Epidemic in Athens: Yet still the ones who felt most pity for the sick and the dying were those who had had the plague themselves and had recovered from it. They knew what it was like and at the same time felt themselves to be safe, for no one caught the disease twice, or, if he did, the second attack was never fatal. ... They fondly imagined that they could never die of any other disease in the future. (Golub, Edward S. Immunology: A Synthesis . Page 2) Rome • Celcus (about 25 AD) - Four Cardinal Signs of Inflammation • Rubor et Tumor cum Calore et Dolore (L= Redness and Swelling with Heat and Pain) • Lucanus (about 50 AD) - First use of the Term Immunity in its current Context: • Reference to Snakebite Resistance of a Tribe of North Africa Immunity (L= free of burden) had previously referred to Exemption from Civic and Military Duties, as well as from Prosecution. Word of Immunity got around fast. In AD 69, the Emperor Nero ʼ s Mother, fearing he would poison her like he had his Brother, consumed small but increasingly large Amounts of the Poison in advance. She was Immune when Nero eventually gave her the full strength Poison. Nero next gave her a Magnificent Villa, with a Bedroom Roof designed to collapse on her. But his Mother used a Custom-Made Canopy Bed and survived. Not one to give up easily, Nero constructed a special Boat for his Mother that was designed to break-apart in the Ocean, which it did quite spectacularly. But his Mother was able to swim to Shore. Eventually Nero gave up all Pretense and sent in a Team of Assassins to do the Foul Deed.
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The Immune System Page 2 France • Ilya Metchnikoff (1845-1916) - Metchnikoff proposed what is now known as Cell-Mediated Immunity in 1882 • Published Observations of Starfish Larvae Phagocytes (G= eating cells) [his term] surrounding a Thorn - Metchnikoff proposed that the Body was defended against Invasion by Phagocytes in a Process analogous to Inflammation • Metchnikoff ʼ s Proposal was not well received Ilya Metchnikoff was a manic-depressive Russian émigré who worked in the Bacteriologist Louis Pasteur ʼ s Lab in Paris. He attempted Suicide at least twice. “Cellularists” were unpopular until the mid-1950s. Metchnikoff ʼ s Proposal was not well received in the Medical Community because Inflammation at the Time was considered to be a Harmful Process. In addition, Cell-Mediated Immunology can only be properly studied-- and appreciated-- with Molecular Biological Techniques. Molecular Biology emerged in the mid-1950s in the US, France and the UK.
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07.+The+Immune+System - The Immune System Some History...

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