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08.+The+Immune+Response

08.+The+Immune+Response - The Immune Response There are two...

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The Immune Response Page 1 The Immune Response There are two separate but interconnected and overlapping Sub-Systems involved in an Immune Response: Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity. Innate Immunity (Non-Specific Immunity or Natural Immunity) - Fast, Reliable, but Non-specific First Line Defense System • Similar Response regardless of the Pathogen - We ʼ ll cover four important Innate Immunity Defense Mechanisms: • Fever Mediated (in part) by Inflammatory Cytokines • Complement Mediated by functionally linked Plasma Proteins. • Natural Killer Cells NK Cells • Acute Inflammation Mediated by Mast Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils Adaptive Immunity (Specific Immunity or Acquired Immunity) - Slow, Cantankerous, but Highly Specific Defense System • Different Responses for different Pathogens - Adaptive Immunity can be Cell-Mediated or Antibody Mediated • Cell-Mediated Immunity - Immune Mediated Inflammation T H 1 Inflammatory T Cells secrete Type 1 Cytokines that enlist Macrophages and Neutrophils. - Cytotoxic T Cell-Mediated Response T H 1 Inflammatory T Cells secrete Type 1 Cytokines that help activate CD8 + T Cytotoxic T Cells. • Antibody-Mediated Immunity (Humoral Immunity) T H 2 Helper T Cells secrete Type 2 Cytokines that help activate B Cells.
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The Immune Response Page 2 Innate Immunity Defense Mechanisms Innate Immunity involves the Interactions of Cells and Factors derived from the Bloodstream and from Tissues. The Effector Functions of Innate Immunity are intricately Interwoven with one another and with Adaptive Immunity. We ʼ ll cover four important Innate Immunity Defense Mechanisms: (1) Fever (3) Natural Killer Cells (2) Complement (4) Inflammation (1) Fever Fever creates an Environment unfavorable for the Growth of many Bacteria. Since Metabolic Activity increases roughly 7% for each Degree increase in Temperature, Fever can dramatically enhance Innate Immunity. • Endogenous Pyrogens (G= inside fire producers) - Fever-Inducing Substances produced inside the Body • IL-1, IL-6, and TNF- α (Inflammatory Cytokines) - Secreted by Macrophages In addition to inducing Fever, Inflammatory Cytokines initiate Cytokine Cascade Reactions that can be protective for Localized Infections, but lethal for Systemic Infections. • Prostaglandins - Produced by the Hypothalamus (G= below the inner room) Aspirin reduces Fever by inhibiting the Enzyme required for Prostaglandin Synthesis. Prostaglandins received their Name because they were initially thought to be made in the Prostate Gland. In fact, they ʼ re produced by many different Cells in the Body. • Exogenous Pyrogens (G= outside fire producers) - Fever-inducing Substances produced outside of the Body • Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) - Lipopolysaccharides are Cell Wall Components of Gram Negative Bacteria • Induces an intriguing Cascade Reaction...
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The Immune Response Page 3 The Lipopolysaccharide-induced Cytokine Cascade • In his Thought-provoking Book The Lives of a Cell , Lewis Thomas writes: It is the information carried by the bacteria that we cannot abide.
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