11.+Syphilis - Syphilis Some History The Origins of...

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Syphilis Page 1 Syphilis Some History The Origins of Syphilis are Unclear • New World Origin (Columbian Exchange) - Columbus and his Crew brought Syphilis back from the Americas. • This explains the first recorded Outbreak in Naples (1494) Studies of Native American Burial Grounds show Signs of Syphilis. • Old World Origin (Pre-Columbian) - Syphilis pre-existed in Europe • The Timing of the Naples Outbreak is Coincidental • Simultaneous Origin - Syphilis simultaneously evolved from closely related, Non-Sexually- Transmitted Treponemal Diseases in the New World and the Old World • Bejal (Treponema pallidum Subspecies endemicum ) is common in the Middle East Bejal is sometimes called Endemic Syphilis. But keep in Mind that Bejal is a Non-Sexually-Transmitted Disease. • Pinta (Treponema carateum ) is common in South and Central America • Yaws (Treponema pertenue ) is common in the Tropics The first recorded Outbreak was in Naples in 1494 The first detailed Description is from the German physician Ulrich von Hutten in 1519. It was a very detailed Description indeed, since he was describing his own Case. Girolamo Fracastoro, a Physician, Poet, Geologist, and Astronomer, first used the term Syphilis in 1530. “Syphilis” was the Name of a Shepherd in the Medical Poem “Syphilis sive Morbus Gallicus (Syphilis or The French Disease)”. Syphilis has always been caused by and transmitted by another Nationality, usually your Enemy. The English called it the French Disease, the French called it the Neopolitan Disease, the Russians called it the Polish Disease, and Arabs called it the Crusader ʼ s Plague.
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Syphilis Page 2 Early Treatments • Mercury Ointments and Exposure to Mercury Vapors - Both induced Sweating, thought to rid the Body of Bad Humors • Many early Descriptions of Syphilis Symptoms are Side Effects of these marginally effective Treatments This Treatment lead to the Quip, “A Night with Venus, a Lifetime with Mercury.” • Exposure to Malaria - Induced Fever - Somewhat successful in preventing the Growth of the Spirochete It had been observed that People who caught Malaria were sometimes cured of Syphilis. It ʼ s still not clear why this occurs. Fritz Schaudinn and Eric Hoffmann identified the Causative Agent in 1905 • They initially named it Spirochaeta pallida August Wassermann, Albert Neisser, and Carl Bruck developed a diagnostic Serum Test in 1906 • Wassermann looked for Antigenic Differences between Individuals who had Syphilis and Individuals who didn ʼ t have Syphilis - And such an Antigen was discovered -- Cardiolipin • Wassermann logically assumed that Cardiolipin was a Bacterial Antigen. It isn ʼ t Cardiolipin actually is present in the Bacterium but it is not Antigenic (it does not elicit an Immune Response). - Cardiolipins are Host Cell Mitochondrial Lipids
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11.+Syphilis - Syphilis Some History The Origins of...

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