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Unformatted text preview: Influenza Page 1 Influenza Some History 412 BC Hippocrates • First written Description of Influenza 1510 • First Pandemic of Influenza (Italy) - Thought to have been caused either by Cold (Influenza de Freddo) or by Celestial Influence (Influenza de Coeli) • Hence the Name “Influenza” (Italian = influence) Influenza occurred during Fall and Winter and certain Stars only appear during Fall and Winter in the Northern Hemisphere. 1889-1890 “Chinese Distemper” (H3N2 [?]) • Bacteriologist Richard Pfeiffer isolated Hemophilus influenzae (which became known as “Pfeiffer ʼ s Bacillus”) - Strongly suspected of being the Causative Agent of Influenza • But Pfeiffer ʼ s Bacillus couldn ʼ t be isolated from all Influenza Patients - Nor did it cause Influenza when tested on Volunteers 1918 “Spanish Flu” (H1N1) • An unusually Virulent Strain of Influenza - Most Influenza induces the greatest Mortality in Children under 10 and Adults over 60 (i.e. Those with Sub-Par Immune Systems) - Spanish Flu induced the greatest Mortality in Adults 20 to 30 (i.e. Those with Fully-Functional Immune Systems). Current Thinking is that Spanish Flu may have initiated a Hyper-Immune Response involving an unregulated Inflammatory Response. • 500,000 Deaths in the US - That was five Times greater than US Casualties in WWI San Francisco ʼ s Mortality Rates were Typical: 3,500 died out of a Total Population of 350,000.That ʼ s 3,500 died, not 3,500 were infected. • Approximately 55 Million Deaths Worldwide Influenza Page 2 1957 Asian Flu (H2N2) • A major Outbreak of Influenza occurred in China - Federal Bureaucratic Bickering and Public Apathy delayed manufacture of a Vaccine • The Asian Flu killed 70,000 in the US 1968 Hong Kong Flu (H3N2) • A Major Outbreak of Influenza occurred in Hong Kong - Manufacture of Vaccine Production was rapidly begun • But not nearly as rapidly as Jet Airliners brought the Hong Kong Flu to the US - 33,000 died in the US Influenza Virus loves Jet Airliners. Passengers -- frequently already Tired from having gotten- up at O-Dark Hundred -- are funneled in from Connecting Flights and packed into Coach with less than 2 Feet Side-to-Side and less than 3 Feet Front-to-Back between adjacent Noses. The Passenger to Bathroom Ratio can be as High as 80:1, increasing the Opportunities for Nose to Hand to Nose Transmission. 1976 Swine Flu (Swine: H1N1) • In February of 1976 an unusually virulent Influenza Outbreak -- seemingly Swine Flu --occurred at Ft. Dix in New Jersey Most of these Cases were H3N2 (i.e. Variants from 1968); however, four Cases were H1N1 (“Swine Flu”). H1 Influenza had not been “seen” in the US since 1918 so anyone under 60 would be Susceptible. One of the H1N1 Cases died....
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- Spring '09
- influenza virus, Influenza Page