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57 CHAPTER 5 PERIODICITY AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE Chapter Learning Goals A. Electromagnetic Radiation – Characterization 1. Interconvert wavelength, frequency, and energy of electromagnetic radiation. 3. Interconvert the amount of energy associated with a quantum of radiant energy, frequency, and wavelength. B. Wave Functions and Quantum Numbers 1. Sketch and name each of the s, p, and d orbitals. C. Electron Configurations 1. State the Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hund’s Rule and the Aufbau Principle. 2. Predict ground–state electron configurations for elements; use orbital–filling diagrams to determine the number of unpaired electrons in these species. D. Valence Electrons and the Periodic Table 1. Explain what is meant by effective nuclear charge, Z eff . 2. Write the general valence–shell electron configuration for each group of the periodic table, and identify the blocks in which the elements are located. 3. Given a set of atoms, determine which atom is expected to have the largest radius. Chapter in Brief The periodic table is the most important organizing principle in chemistry. This chapter explains why the elements, when placed in order of increasing atomic weight, have a periodic occurrence of chemical and physical properties. This periodicity can be understood by examining the theory used to describe the electronic structure of atoms. Chapter 5 begins the examination of this theory by introducing electromagnetic radiation and the properties of waves. You will discover how both light and matter can have dual (both wave and particle) properties. With this information, you are introduced to quantum mechanics and quantum numbers, a mathematical theory used to describe the probability of finding an electron in an atom. You are then shown how to use quantum mechanics to determine the electronic configuration of the elements. Finally, you will apply this knowledge to learn how atoms in the same group in the periodic table have similar electronic configurations and how these electronic configurations affects periodic properties such as atomic radii.
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Chapter 5—Periodicity and Atomic Structure 58 LECTURE OUTLINE Development of the Periodic Table A. Creation of the Periodic Table. 1. Ideal example of how scientific theory comes into being. a. random observations b. organization of data in ways that make sense c. consistent hypothesis emerges i. explains known facts ii. makes predictions about unknown phenomena B. Mendeleev's hypothesis about organizing known chemical information. 1. Met criteria for a good hypothesis. a. listed the known elements by atomic weight b. grouped them together according to their chemical reactivity b. was able to predict the properties of unknown elements – eka aluminum, eka –silicon Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum A. Electromagnetic radiation — forms of radiant energy (light in all its varied forms).
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2011 for the course BUSINESS 101 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '11 term at Southern Nazarene.

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