Chapt 7 Notes - CHAPTER 7 COVALENT BONDS AND MOLECULAR...

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83 CHAPTER 7 COVALENT BONDS AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE Chapter Learning Goals A. Covalent Bonds 1. From a list of compounds, predict which are ionic and which are molecular. 2. Using only the periodic table, predict which of two elements is more electronegative. 3. Using only the periodic table, predict whether a given bond is ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent. 4. Using a table of electronegativities, predict which of two bonds is expected to be more polar. B. Lewis Theory 1. Write Lewis symbols for atoms, and tell how many electrons must be shared to enable the atom to achieve a completed valence shell. Give the symbol of the noble gas with the same number of valence electrons. 2. For each atom in an electron–dot structure, give the number of bonded electron pairs and the number of nonbonded electron pairs. 3. For a given electron–dot structure, give the number of single bonds, double bonds, and triple bonds. Give the bond order of each bond. 4. Draw electron–dot structures of molecules and polyatomic ions, recognizing when multiple bonding and resonance structures are needed. 5. Determine the formal charge on each atom in a resonance structure, and use the formal charges to select the best resonance structure. C. VSEPR Theory 1. Use the VSEPR model to predict the geometries of molecules and polyatomic ions, including those with more than one central atom. D. Valence Bond Theory 1. For molecules and polyatomic ions, sketch and identify the orbitals used by each atom to form bonds. Show which orbital overlaps result in σ bonds and which result in π bonds. E. Molecular Orbital Theory 1. Sketch a molecular orbital diagram for a diatomic molecule. Use the molecular orbital diagram to determine the number of unpaired electrons and to calculate the bond order of the molecule described. Chapter in Brief The most important kind of bond in all of chemistry is the covalent bond, which involves the sharing of electrons between atoms. To understand this bonding concept, you need to first learn about the type of interactions that occur between atoms and how to draw electron–dot structures, a useful tool for visualizing the interactions of electrons in a molecule. You will also learn how to determine the type of bonding that occurs in a molecule based on bond polarities, to predict the relative importance of resonance structures based on formal charge calculations, and to determine molecular shapes using VSEPR theory. Once you have mastered molecular shape determinations, you will be able to apply this knowledge to valence bond theory and to ascertain the type of hybridization predicted by valence bond
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Chapter 7—Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure 84 theory. Finally, you will be introduced to molecular orbital theory, a more sophisticated and, at times, more accurate bonding description.
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85 LECTURE OUTLINE The Covalent Bond A. Formation of a covalent bond.
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Chapt 7 Notes - CHAPTER 7 COVALENT BONDS AND MOLECULAR...

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