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1 CHAPTER 8 THERMOCHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL ENERGY Chapter Learning Goals A. Heat Transfer 1. State the First Law of Thermodynamics, and understand its application to thermochemistry. 2. Differentiate between the concepts of heat and temperature. 3. Identify a state function. B. Energy Change 1. Define and calculate PV work. Know whether work is being done by the system or on the system. 2. Differentiate between energy and enthalpy, and perform calculations interconverting the two. From ! H or ! E, tell whether energy is being lost from or gained by the system. 3. Given a balanced chemical equation and enthalpy change for a chemical reaction, calculate the enthalpy change per mole or per gram of each reactant and product. 4. Perform calculations involving specific heat (or molar heat capacity), heat flow, and temperature change. C. Enthalpy Change 1. Perform calculations involving Hess’s law. 2. Use standard heats of formation to calculate a standard heat of reaction. 3. Use bond dissociation energies to approximate a standard heat of reaction. D. Spontaneous Reactions 1. Predict whether entropy increases or decreases for a chemical reaction or physical change. 2. Use the equation ! G = ! H – T ! S to determine whether the forward reaction or the reverse reaction is favored. 3. Use ! H and ! S to determine the temperature at which a reversible system is at equilibrium. Chapter in Brief This chapter introduces you to the concept of thermochemistry: the heat changes that take place during reactions. You begin the study of this topic by learning the difference between heat and energy, and the types of energy changes that can take place. You are then introduced to the Law of Conservation of Energy, the First Law of Thermodynamics, and the concept of state functions. With this background, you will then learn how to calculate the internal energy of the system using P ! V work and how the internal energy of the system is related to the enthalpy ( ! H ) of the system. You will spend much of the rest of the chapter exploring how to use specific heat calculations in the laboratory and how to use Hess’s law, standard heats of formation, and bond dissociation energies to calculate heats of reaction. Finally, you are introduced to the topics of entropy and free energy, topics that will be explored in more detail in later chapters.
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2 LECTURE OUTLINE Energy A. Energy — the capacity to do work or supply heat. 1. Energy = work + heat B. Kinetic energy — the energy of motion. 1. E K = 1/2 mv 2 C. Potential energy — stored energy. D. Joule — SI unit for energy. 1. 1 J = 1(kg " m 2 )/s 2 E. Calorie — the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 ° C.
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2011 for the course BUSINESS 101 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '11 term at Southern Nazarene.

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