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45 CHAPTER 4 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Chapter Learning Goals A. Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 1. Classify substances as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. B. Chemical Equations 1. Write molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for precipitation, acid–base, and redox reactions. C. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Precipitation and Acid–Base Neutralization 1. State solubility rules, and use them to predict whether a precipitate might form when aqueous salt solutions are mixed. 2. Identify the common strong acids and strong bases. D. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Oxidation–Reduction 1. Assign oxidation numbers to each atom in a chemical species. 2. In a redox reaction, identify the species oxidized, the species reduced, the oxidizing agent, and the reducing agent. 3. Using an activity series, predict whether a redox reaction will occur when a metal is placed in contact with a solution containing an ion of a different metal. 4. Balance redox reactions by the oxidation-number method and by the half-reaction method. 5. Determine the concentration of a species, using data from a redox titration. Chapter in Brief This chapter discusses three different types of chemical reactions in aqueous solution: precipitation reactions, acid– base reactions, and oxidation–reduction reactions. These reactions are often written as net ionic equations. As a consequence, it is necessary to know the difference between strong and weak electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. You can predict the outcome of each of these reactions if you know the solubility rules, can recognize acids and bases, and know how to assign oxidation numbers to compounds. You are also shown how to balance oxidation–reduction reactions with either the oxidation–number method or the method of half–reactions. Finally, you will apply the concepts you learned in earlier chapters about stoichiometry to the reactions that are discussed in this chapter.
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Chapter 4—Reactions in Aqueous Solution 46 LECTURE OUTLINE Some Ways that Chemical Reactions Occur A. Reactions are driven from reactants to products by some energetic driving force that pushes them along. B. Driving forces of reactions. 1. Precipitation Reactions — solid precipitate forms and drops out of solution--driving force — removal of material from solution. 2. Acid–Base Neutralization — an acid reacts with a base to produce a salt and water--driving force — formation of water. 3. Oxidation–Reduction (Redox) Reaction — transfer of electrons between reactants--driving force — decrease in electrical potential. Textbook problem 4.1 page 108 Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution ( Table 4.1 page 110) A. Electrolytes — dissolve in water to produce ionic solutions.
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