test 1 key - FGE 3G1 Energer Engineering and the...

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Unformatted text preview: FGE 3G1 Energer Engineering and the Environment Name TESE'#I, Februory 231 24311 UTEIEJI This test is closed book. closed notes; no cell phones. no programmable calculators. All questions worth 1 pt unless otherwise specified. Circle the correct answer. 1. 1u'll'hich of the following diagrams shows the correct relationship between faulting and stress? E] | _ g] so thosc arc all map view mowmowoq these are all map 1.Iietitr 4. Which ofthe following describes-the relative in situ stress magnitudes in a normal faulting stress regime? ‘ ‘ a. 5H”,aJl a 5.r :- Sh“...n Sui-nu 3" 5i-m-iii-i 3‘ 5v 3" 5Hmiair } Shrnin I none of the ahoye 5. In lyerse faulting stress regime, the hydraulic fracture is expected to l- e horizontai. . clip 30 degreesr with the_strilte parallel to the fault strike. c. be vertical, with the strike perpendicular to the fault strike. d. be’perpendicular to 5mg. 1 ' . - 6. In a strike-slip faulting stress regime. the hydraulic fracture is expected to a. be horizontal. b. dip El] degrees. with the strike parallel to the fault strike. c. be vertical. with the strike perpendicular to the fault strilte. . e perpendicular to 5mm. 7". For a reverse or thrust faulty you are likely to have the following structures: a. anticline in the footwall and synclihe in the hanging wall. it. domino style block tilting. {a positive flower structure. nticline in the hanging wall; syncline in the footwall. ti (71:39 a. in West Texas, a Tertiary sandstone has an outcrop width of 450 m and a formation thickness of \ cl. 5‘“ a El. During a hydraulic fracture treatment, the fluid is being pumped into the well at so barrels per minute at a pressure of 15,001] psi. What kind of power would be required for such an '--..~ operation? {1 barrel is 42 gallons] _ f I Z a“ a. 11,ozsraw 30M, ngfihlwfl , lbO “3 lwl” mt ‘____—-- b. assassin—Ian M“ (on: $4" Hi. Al'l c sosxiofhp ? a“ @pzs hp . 34, so: hp 1D. You are hydraulically fracturing a sandstone that has a permeability area D. lr'our drainage area is 4D acres. Your fracturing model predicts a fracture Width of [1.3 inches. Your boss is all about cost—cutting, so he wants to use 20,340 Brady sand because there is some left over from another project {if you had to buy proppant, Brady sand costs SUJWIb, and Bauxite costs Elflfiflb}. The depth of the reservoir is T500 ft, and the closure stress that 1lllloultl be acting on the proppant is cost. of the vertical stress. The fracturing company has recommended a fracture with a length of Magda. Based on this information, make a recommendation to your boss. Choose the best option from below. a W H/ . Use the cheap proppant an akimizg length to get the best production response\ se a larger diameter proppant, like Brady 6,!12, and pump a shorter fracture to save "-,_ cost because frac length isn’t important for this case. l\ c. Use zone Bauxite because it has better permeability than 2Gf4tfi Brady Sand, and I maximize frac length because that always improves Jflu. d. Decrease the formation permeability, because that would greatly improve the Relative Conductivity and get you a better Jflg. 11. Which of the following is not a key function of the drilling rig?J hoisting operations pipe rotation pressure control circulation of drilling fluid a b E. . producing and storing oil and gas 12. ten are measuring permeabilitv for a new proppant in the laboratorv. The results for a constant head experiment using fresh water were a flow of 2? g in at] seconds. a sample length of L=5 cm, a constant em = 55 cm for the inlet side [oi-l is the height ofthe water column feeding into the sample inleti. and outlet open to atmospheric pressuf, a nd crossvsectlonal area of Iii cm}. r w . 'sthe permeabilitv? AP :. Hggfih ‘mo 1 5.735410 21.1 o O . _ 2.1x1o'io q 1 gal (Lo/5 B H a: 21.1cm2 K _._ CW: Zel Kill? 13. The kellv is L11ng S‘ng Pet 1} ' { 0 a. attached to the surface casing for emergencv flow control during a blowout. b. used to separate drill cuttings from the mud. ©is a square cross—section pipe used in conjunction with the ltellv bushing to rotate the d drill string and bit. a wrench like apparatus used bv rig hands to tighten and loosen connections between joints of drill pipe. l 14. Water has an AFI gravity of 1°.True 15. Surface casing a. is unnecessary for all but the deepest wells which penetrate fresh water aquifers below the oil reservoir. b should extend from the surface to a couple hundred feet below the conductor casing. @should extend from the surface to a couple hundred feet below the deepest freshwater aquifer. d. is tvpicallv not cemented unless there are oil zones that need pressure control. 15. Drill pipe connections are made and broken [tightened and loosened: with a elevators. b. the swivel. the bale. ongs. 1?. The most important parameter for achieving good HOP when drilling is weight on bit. . rotaryr table speed. c. pump rate. d. drill bit diameter. 13. The slips are used to a. clean the hole before cementing. hold the weight of the drill pipe so the hook load can be slacked off for making connections. c. grip the drill pipe so that the rotation of the rotary table is transmitted to the drill string. d. lubricate the drill string so that it slides sn‘rootl'il'iiI into the hole. with the least amount of friction. fa plat. 19. The purpose of drilling mud is to a. cool the bit. b. carrv drill cuttings back to surface. c. provide pressure control for the well. build a filter cake to prevent fluid leak-off to the formation. e. all ofthe above. 20. I - der to change a bit during drilling, it is necessarv to trip the pipe out of the hole and back in. ‘T— i False. 21. I Ilcollars are usedto a. centralize the drill string during cementing. % add to the weight on the bit for better performance. c. scrape the mud off the side of the hole during drilling to prevent clogging. d. all ofthe above. 22. A kick a. is the point where drilling transitions from vertical to horizontal. could lead to a blowout. c. d is what the driller does when he is frustrated with the toolpusher. . is the connection between the surface casing and the BOP. r . 23. Once drilling and cementing is completed, a well is readsr to produce oil and gas. True 24. A tvpical Marcellus Shale well uses on the order of how much water for completing and fracturing? a. sooo gallons. : b. 5 billion gallons. G) 5 million gallons. d soo barrels. 25. Water usage for Marcellus Shale gas develop - I. in Pennsvlvania accounts for more than half of the total water usage in the state. True 93 1: 25.11. ' al Marcellus well development drills as manv as 1:] horizontal wells from a single surface location. requires a separate well location about even; 4b acres in order to drill as many as it! an additional vertical well for everv hvdraulic fracture location along the horizontal. d. perforates the casing for production bv injecting high pressure, sand—laden fluid that pierces a hole in the casing and cement. 2?. For Darcy.I flow, 3. increasing grain size increases permeabilitv. b. increased pressure drop increases flow rate. :2. higher viscositv results in higher flow rate. d. all of the above. a b only. wells per square mile. :2. will pump manv hvdraulic fractures per horizontal well, at regular spacing, and requiring E 23. The main difference between radial and linear flowI is a. there is a stronger 1.lertical flow component for radial flow. h. radial flow has a higher skin factor than linear flow. ©inear flow is more efficient with regard to flow rate and pressure drop. . linear flow can only be achieved with horizontal wells. 25}. The deeper a source rock is buried, . the less organic carbon it is likely to have. ® the more likely it is to produce gas. c. the less likely it is to have a seal. cl. the better the associated reservoir rock. 300 500 411] Answer the following 2 questions biased on the basin history ‘ram aboye. 3D. Triassic rocks would make good soy'u'ce rocks for oil. True o 31. if Ordovician rocks are the source a. before SDI] ma. 'E') if efore 25f] ma. l E. N I (abate ygfifi‘fiflfi c. after 2Efl ma. Duly C‘Tr‘h— {L D ‘E ‘ e. before 110 ma. '(‘IE GI 11L. 32. Steady state flow is a. what results in a vertical well due to hydraulic fracturing. accomplished by injecting as much fluid into the reservoir as you produce. c. the term used to describe the flow of mud while tripping pipe. cl. what occurs when the drilling mud pressure is less than the formation pressure. 33. The higher the API gravity of an oil, a. the higher its density. b. the higher its viscosity. the lower its viscosity. . the lower its temperature. . HHS. a plunging synctine. l? "L a [ c. aplunginganticline. a non—plunging syncline. d. a non-plunging anticllne. 35. The light colored units pointed to by the arrow and labeled Illal represent . missing section due to a normal fault. uaternary alluvlum eroding through the bedrock in a stream channel. . an igneous dike of Quaternary age. Reference Information P 2 9p P m4 q=3NF P,J = pump power {in hp] a = pump rate {in galfmin} p = pump pressure {in psi} NF. = pump speed (in strokesfminute} Pa = rptawr [JG-WEI Ii" hp} "1"r = rutaryr torque {in ft'lbf} NR = rptar'wI speed [in rpm] 0_ m: a}: “"MIJBMP +3} AP!“=-fl—131 ‘ SG Conversion Factors 1 ff" = 143 331 um: M43 N 1 BTU = 1055.1 1 hp = 550 ft-lpy’s 1 cp = ppm Pa—s eeme'g m.2 = 1 p : .EEEE .5: sunn— Eu nflm :nuE Etna-n. tEEEu to Earmlmd .mE PEEEE .En sui— ..:u an“ :muE Emu 33......qu E Hum—“mind .E". “ban... 5 fin $3.5 353.0 332. E in .325 2:2“. sump “1'11 “luggqeawmd Kai-BF '"Jl 'fimlqeawmd _:N____n_. "EEE cééd "5:533:90 Ennng . r ES“ 3.3.". =m=owd DNHNF - “Eu _| . ucnn Ennis—3m 3.5“ w 53.. !| - we: :33: 3.3“ . «Em . I ucmm uni an: ruin Illrl 351:3»... 3... REE“: 31...” 5:2535 E232“. H.333 uEmEfi hmctaumt Ea: 533335 E mmmmBEIfim .9". .tifiuzazou MESS: .n. .o. n 6. II I D ___“mmmfim Fina“ ::.:::. :9:- n :5: 3.25331... w 91.:3puich 5:... :2: __.__:__.:u_..__aa_.._.. 1. :........:n_._.. :0- .._.:_:.J i°rxr1 HM”! .II #15:... _ 3:3: 5 1:21:21 3 .“ zigzahuq: 3 rpm?! Gauguin...’ .. m *ugui..:_uigm Agun_.¢flm _ It . .1. ha: .33: nudzizb .. m ELYD Elf). :43. in... :2: 53.: unauih..._..__.n w \ . . 33:32:. .3: .3 :31. i .E. .C..:.::.:.. 3.5.1.3. "35111.1 till i . .. . ..I.u.....fl ____E....\..H inn-.5:— .+h___=m__m . Ea :_ .55: r. _____m__"_m...um._ i iiii!‘ ::::::=:=:E E ‘1 (TI- 1C! GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE GENDZGIC .u x. .h. u . ififlflflflflflifl Mill"- n-H l‘l'fi' Uligmana £5 fig ,3 1 % mam- El 7' 'i E I i i .l Fbl' mm'lflnnbflm BM xx:th- F H mandala-I1. -. G. (a. .I- [‘1 Smilh Ital- Immuflfi EMF: Ulrnl'flf F'ncn Idvl'llu GIL-hi mind he Inlmfiond fitmnmicn Ln Hmumpry :ICEZ wanderer-r wmfiyw Tum:n.w-ur-nq¢ 'Jmmgm1all. n-amwmm-mw-mnn- r; [l 2.3 555 ' TEIEI B ‘251 359.2 {16 143.3 a; i you Ar.- -¢.um Gut-r aw .n sum-r..- M3 562% 11 ...
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test 1 key - FGE 3G1 Energer Engineering and the...

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