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094358 - Paper 43/58 Page 1 of 5 THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY...

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Unformatted text preview: Paper: 43/58 Page 1 of 5 THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING ( School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering ) MASTERS OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING ENGGSZOZ Sustainable Design, Engineering and Management Duration I The duration of this examination is TWO hours. Instructions to Students I This paper consists of THREE Sections. I Section 1 consists of 10 compulsory TRUE / FALSE questions. I Section 2 consists of FIVE questions. I Attempt EITHER Question 1 or Question 2, but not both. I Attempt ONLY TWO questions from questions 3, 4 and 5. I Section 3 consists of THREE questions — Attempt ALL THREE questions in this section. ENGG5202 Sustainable Design, Engineering and Management Semester 1, 2009 Paper: 43/58 SECTION 1 — TRUE / FALSE Attempt all questions in this section Page 2 of 5 (10 MARKS) l TRUE FALSE As atmospheric C02 levels increase, the opaque outer layers of the A atmosphere move to lower and thus warmer altitudes. In “The Tragedy of the Commons” Garrett Harding explains that when B benefits accrue to a society, it is individuals that must carry the costs. C when no product or service was being provided. A plant or process with zero energy overheads would not use any energy D I have high capital and low or zero fuel costs. Interest rates have a higher effect on renewable energy costs (as distinct from fossil fuelled generation) because renewable generation technologies In a typical Australian house the major source of heat gain is appliance and E lighting heat loads. Fresh water represents less than 30% of world water resources. F i The majority of the water withdrawn in the world goes towards agricultural I G use. H through evapotranspiration. About 60% of the water precipitated on land is returned to the atmosphere A country’s water footprint is a function of volume of consumption, I consumption pattern, climate and agricultural practices. J treatment. In wastewater treatment, secondary treatment is also known as biological ENGG5202 Sustainable Design, Engineering and Management Semester 1, 2009 Paper: 43/58 Page 3 of 5 SECTION 2 — ENERGY (40 MARKS) Students must attempt Q] or Q2 then ONLY TWO questions fiom questions 3, 4 and 5. QUESTION I (attempt this question OR Q2) (20 marks) An organisation plans to install gas-fired cogeneration at its food processing facility in NSW. It uses a lot of hot water ~ its annual gas consumption for water heating is 10.7 TJ per year, while its electricity usage is 2.5 GWh per year. a) Assuming the plant runs for 2 shifts (i.e. l6h/day, 5 days/week), 50 weeks a year, what size reciprocating engine would you recommend for best use of fuel? Assume an engine efficiency of 35% and that 80% of the engine's waste heat can be captured for water heating. [10 marks] b) If the gas price is $7/GJ and the electricity price is $0.10/kWh will the owner be better or worse off assuming he or she doesn't have to pay for plant — i.e. on the basis of annual fuel cost alone. [7 marks] 0) The owner has been told that plants with an annual emission of more than 25 ktonnes C02 will have to register for NGERS. Assume the emission intensity of natural gas is 52 kg C02 /GJ, will the owner need to register? [3 marks] QUESTION 2 (attempt this question OR Q1) (20 marks) a) Describe 2 aspects of what is meant by Sustainable Design. [4 marks] b) Select 2 elements of Whole System Design and describe how they could be used in designing a better vehicle, or a new chemical process or product. [4 marks] 0) There are four phases in the Systems Engineering Approach to Sustainable Design, beginning with the Need Definition. If you were asked to provide the owner of a large commercial building with a design that reduces their carbon emissions, and photovoltaic power generation was one of the options identified in the Conceptual Design Phase, describe the design activities that you would undertake in the Preliminary Design Phase. [12 marks] ENGG5202 Sustainable Design, Engineering and Management Semester 1, 2009 Paper: 43/58 Page 4 of 5 Attempt ONLY T W0 questions from questions 3, 4 and 5. QUESTION 3 (10 marks) a) Explain what is meant by embodied energy. [3 marks] b) If all the embodied energy in a) an aluminium drink can of weight 15 g b) a glass bottle of 100 g, could be converted to electricity, how long will it run an 18 W compact fluorescent light bulb? Assume an embodied energy of 170 MJ/kg for aluminium and 12.7 MJ/kg for glass. [4 marks] c) Aluminium produced in Australia has similar embodied energy to that produced in other countries, but the GHG emissions associated with production of aluminium in Australia are much higher than international figures. What is the main cause of this? [3 marks] QUESTION 4 (10 marks) a) If a medium sized car uses 10 L of fuel (34.2 MJ/L) to travel 100 km, and gasoline has an emission factor of 66 kg COze/GJ, how many grams of C02 are emitted per km? [5 marks] b) An all electric vehicle is able to travel 100 km on a charge of 25 kWh. Assuming this power was provided to the battery from the NSW electricity grid, with an emission intensity of 1.06 tonnes C02 /MWh, how many grams of C02 are emitted per km? [5 marks] QUESTION 5 (10 marks) A home owner decides to reduce his/her household energy consumption so as to reduce his/her GHG emissions. The home is typical of many Australian homes built in the 1960's and 70's and still has original windows, doors, electric storage hot water, no insulation and is oriented to the west. It gets very hot in summer and the owner's family have been asking for air-conditioning to be installed. Using the principles of whole system design, suggest an approach that will provide the greatest reduction in emissions with the most economic long-term solution even with the installation of air—conditioning. ENGG5202 Sustainable Design, Engineering and Management Semester 1, 2009 Paper: 43/58 Page 5 of 5 SECTION 3 —WATER & WASTE Students must attempt all questions in this section. QUESTION 6 (15 marks) a) Describe the various steps in Life-cycle Analysis. [7 marks] b) What are the difficulties in using life—cycle analyses in decision making? [8 marks] QUESTION 7 (15 marks) A wastewater treatment plant employs a number of treatment steps. Answer the following questions related to secondary treatment: a) What is the purpose of secondary treatment? [3 marks] b) What is the difference between a fixed-growth secondary treatment system and a suspended growth system? [6 marks] c) Name one common fixed-growth secondary treatment process and give a brief description of its configuration and operation. Use sketches to help you with your answer. [6 marks] QUESTION 8 (20 marks) a) Discuss three (3) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of landfills as a waste disposal technique. [6 marks] b) Describe with the aid of sketches the design and operation of a bioreactor landfill. [8 marks] c) Outline the advantages of bioreactor landfills. [6 marks] END OF EXAMINATION ENGG5202 Sustainable Design, Engineering and Management Semester 1, 2009 ...
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