waves_01 - waves_01 1 WAVES What is a wave A disturbance...

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1 What is a wave? A disturbance that propagates Examples Waves on the surface of water Sound waves in air Electromagnetic waves Seismic waves through the earth Electromagnetic waves can propagate through a vacuum All other waves propagate through a material medium (mechanical waves). It is the disturbance that propagates - not the medium - e.g. Mexican wave WAVES CP 478 waves_01

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2 waves_01: MINDMAP SUMMARY Wave, wave function, harmonic, sinusodial functions (sin, cos), harmonic waves, amplitude, frequency, angular frequency, period, wave length, propagation constant (wave number), phase, phase angle, radian, wave speed, phase velocity, intensity, inverse square law, transverse wave, longitudinal (compressional) wave, particle displacement, particle velocity, particle acceleration, mechanical waves, sound, ultrasound, transverse waves on strings, electromagnetic waves, water waves, earthquake waves, tsunamis ( 29 2 2 2 2 2 ( , ) sin( ) sin sin 2 2 1 2 p p y x t A k x t A x t x vt T k f f v f T T T k y y v a t t π ϖ λ = ± = ± = ± = = = = = = = = =
3 SHOCK WAVES CAN SHATTER KIDNEY STONES Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

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7 SEISMIC WAVES (EARTHQUAKES) S waves (shear waves) – transverse waves that travel through the body of the Earth. However they can not pass through the liquid core of the Earth. Only longitudinal waves can travel through a fluid – no restoring force for a transverse wave. v ~ 5 km.s -1 . P waves (pressure waves) – longitudinal waves that travel through the body of the Earth. v ~ 9 km.s -1 . L waves (surface waves) – travel along the Earth’s surface. The motion is essentially elliptical (transverse + longitudinal). These waves are mainly responsible for the damage caused by earthquakes.

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8 Tsunami If an earthquakes occurs under the ocean it can produce a tsunami (tidal wave). Sea bottom shifts ocean water displaced water waves spreading out from disturbance very rapidly v ~ 500 km.h -1 , λ ~ (100 to 600) km, height of wave ~ 1m waves slow down as depth of water decreases near coastal regions waves pile up gigantic breaking waves ~30+ m in height. 1883 Kratatoa - explosion devastated coast of Java and Sumatra v g h =
9 Following a 9.0 magnitude earthquake off the coast of Sumatra, a massive tsunami and tremors struck Indonesia and southern Thailand Lanka - killing over 104,000 people in Indonesia and over 5,000 in Thailand.

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waves_01 - waves_01 1 WAVES What is a wave A disturbance...

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