Francefinalessayquestions[2 and identifications

Francefinalessayquestions[2 and identifications - MODERN...

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MODERN FRANCE—FINAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS I will select one of the following three essay questions for the final exam. Identification questions will be taken from the essay questions that are not selected for the final. (The third question will be added soon.) Note that the assigned chapters of John Girling’s France: Political and Social Change provide useful information for all these questions. 2. The history of modern France since the fall of the Second Empire has often been characterized as a civilizational crisis for the French. First, slow economic development meant that the commercial-industrial power of France lagged behind England and Germany and at the same time, it led to a socio-political stalemate in the Third and Fourth Republics. Population stagnation seemed also to signal a historic collapse of the élan vital of the nation. France was also embarrassed by a series of foreign policy failures, including humiliating defeats in the Franco-Prussian War, WW I, and WW II as well as a loss of her colonies in the 1950s and 60s. Political and diplomatic stagnation, led “Conservative Radicals” to champion right-wing solutions to this French crisis as in the Dreyfus and Boulanger affairs, flirtations with Fascism during the 1930s and finally shameful Vichy collaboration with Nazi persecution of minorities during WW II. Finally, as if to complement these negative features of modern French history, French existentialist and post-modern intellectuals professed a “Culture of Despair,” focusing on the alienation of the individual and the failures of French bourgeois society. Explain how the glorious republican tradition of liberté, égalité, fraternité was paralyzed into inaction by political fragmentation or betrayed by racist or authoritarian lapses, from Croix de feu to Jean-Marie Le Pen. Intro Paragraph -1860’s: Louis Napoleon’s Wars: Italian Austrian, Crimean, Franco Prussian (1871). The first two are without glory, and also have heavy casualities. The second one completely destroyed the second empire and all its glamor. -This includes: New Paris (widened streets to prevent revolution), increased infrastructure. Look at Louis Napoleons civic accomplishments (Arc de Triumphe).
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-Paris Commune, Communards were fighting to protect their city against the Germans. -The Communards did not believe in the current government. However this was brutally crushed in an authoritarian manner under Adolphe Theirs. -The fall of the Commune signals the beginning of the 3 rd Republic, aka the green groceres republic, which is also famous as the stalemated republic. During period 116 different departments were formed over 72 years of governance. -Dreyfus Affair, -General Boulanger: Post Napoleonic figure, was part of the war ministry liberté, égalité, fraternité – liberty, life and brotherhood 1940’s - Croix de Feu – stands for crossfire, *French form of the Fascist party-led by old WWI veterans 4 th republic – bourgeoisie, *Inflation, due to war and the Marshall plan (1.6 million to 5-year plan)
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2011 for the course HI 2325 taught by Professor Ad during the Spring '11 term at WPI.

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Francefinalessayquestions[2 and identifications - MODERN...

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