Unformatted text preview: Answer, Key Homework 7 Rubin H Landau
1
Solution :
This printout should have 8 questions. Check
that it is complete before leaving the printer. The work done by the force F results in the
Also, multiplechoice questions may continue change of potential energy of the system. The
nal energy is the potential energy PEfinal =
on the next column or page: nd all choices
mgx; the initial energy is zero. Thus,
before making your selection.
This HW 7 should be done *Before* assignE = mgx
ment HW 6. Yes, this means they are out of
order. However, since HW 7 is short and HW
= 888 N 22:3 m
6 is long, you are advised to start HW 6 early.
= 19802:4 J : Block and Tackle
08:02, trigonometry, numeric, 1 min.
004 A weight of 888 N is raised by a twopulley
arrangement as shown in the gure. Assume
that the pulleys are weightless, the rope does
not stretch, and the system moves at a constant speed which is slow enough that the
kinetic energy is negligible.
How much work is done by the agent force
F to raise the weight by a vertical distance
of 22:3 m? F m
∆x 005 Which of the following is the SI unit of the
force? 1. kg m s2 correct
2. W
3. kg
4. m s2
5. Nm
6. kg m s
7. m kg s
8. J
9. J s
10. N s
Explanation: Correct answer: 19802:4 J. The SI unit of force is kg m s2. This combination of units is called a Newton N. with concepts that can be tested in quiz problems
a What is the magnitude of force F ? b
What is the distance that the force F move? Block and Tackle
08:02, trigonometry, numeric, 1 min.
006 Explanation:
Optional questions not graded, but deal Basic Concepts:
W =Fs
Ugrav: =X
mgh
Fnet = Fi
i The change in potential energy of the weight
is
. 1. 2mgx
2. mgx correct Answer, Key Homework 7 Rubin H Landau 2
final initial 3. F x 4. 1 2F , mgx
2
5. 1 F , mgx
2
6. F , 2mgx P
T T' d
T'
P d/2 7. 3 F x
2
8. F , mgx
9. 2F , mgx
10. 2F + mgx
Explanation:
See Part 1. Optional problems a If we look at the forces on the pulley we
have
T T
d T mg
mg Note that the length of the cord between
points T and T0 is d, and initially both points
are a distance d=2 above the moving assembly of the pulley, which is of negligible size.
When the cord moves a distance d, the point
T moves a distance d above the its initial position and the point T0 stays where it is it is
of course still a distance d from T; but now
the assembly has reached the point T0, which
means the assembly has moved up a distance
d=2. Algorithm
mg As the weight is lifted with no acceleration
we have, by force balance, 2T = mg or T = F = mg
2
b If d is the distance the force F acts, then
the work done is W = Fd = mg d. Using the
2 mg
result of Part 1, W = mgx = 2 d and so d = 2x
Let us examine the geometry of the pulley in
order to convince ourselves that this results is
the correct answer, namely that if the mass
is lifted a distance d=2 then the force F acts
over a distance d. b = 888 N 200
900
5 a = 22:3 m 25
d = 2:0 a
= 2:0 h22:3i
= 44:6 m
hmi = hi hmi
F = 2b0
:
= h888i
2:0
= 444 N
hNi = hNi hi W =F d
= h444i h44:6i
= 19802:4 J
hJi = hNi hmi AP M 1993 MC 18
08:02, calculus, numeric, 1 min.
007 1
2
3
units
4 units
5
units Answer, Key Homework 7 Rubin H Landau
3
When an object is moved from rest at point 99:6 km=h. From what height would the car
A to rest at point B in a gravitational eld, have to be dropped to have the same kinetic
the net work done by the eld depends on the energy?
mass of the object and
Correct answer: 39:0533 m. 1. the positions of A and B only. correct
2. the path taken between A and B only.
3. both the positions of A and B and the path taken between them. 4. the velocity of the object as it moves between A andB . 5. the nature of the external force moving
the object from A to B .
Explanation: Gravitational force is a conservative force,
so in addition to the mass, only the positions
are needed. 008 A block initially at rest is allowed to slide
down a frictionless ramp and attains a speed
v at the bottom. To achieve a speed 2v at the
bottom, how many times as high must a new
ramp be? 1. 4 correct
2. 2
3. 3
4. 1
5. 5
6. 6
Explanation: The gain in kinetic energy, proportional to
the square of the block's speed at the bottom
of the ramp, is equal to the loss in potential
energy. This, in turn, is proportional to the
height of the ramp. 009 Consider a compact car that is being driven at Explanation: Assume the car is dropped from the height
h. By conservation of energy, KEo + PEo = KEf + PEf
PEo = KEf
Thus to attain the same kinetic energy as a
car of the same mass driven at a speed of v,
1
mgh = 2 mv2 v2
h = 2g
The velocity must be in m s. Algorithm
m
hkmi = 1000 m=km
hhsi = 0:000277778 h=s 1
2
3
4
5 g = 9:8 m=s2 80
v = 99:6 km=h 120
m
vmps = vhkmihhi
s
= h99:6ih1000ih0:000277778i
= 27:6667 m=s
hm=si = hkm=hihm=kmihh=si
units
v2:0
h = 2mps
6
:0g
6667 2:0
= h27::0h9:8ii
2
= 39:0533 m
hm= i2:0
hmi = hihms=s2i
units Sliding Down a Plane
08:02, calculus, multiple choice, 1 min.
012 A 3:51 kg block starts at a height of 51:3 cm
on a plane that has an inclination angle of
51:1 as in gure. Answer, Key Homework 7 Rubin H Landau 1:0 , m θ Upon reaching the bottom, the block slides
along a horizontal surface. The coe cient of
friction on both surfaces is = 0:14
How far does the block slide on the horizontal surface before coming to rest?
Correct answer: 3:25035 m. Explanation: From the conservation of energy for the
part of the motion on the inclined plane
1 m v2 = m g h , W
2 end
where the work done is
Z h= sin
,
tan h51:1i h3:1415926 i
180:0 =
= 3:25035 m h hmi = hi , h0:14i 4 h0:01i h51:3i h0:14i hi
,i
tan h hihi hi hm=cmi hcmi units Rising Elevator
08:04, arithmetic, multiple choice, 1 min.
013 An elevator is rising at constant speed. Consider the following statements: I. The upward
cable force is constant. II. The kinetic energy
of the elevator is constant. III. The gravitational potential energy of the earthelevator
system is constant. IV. The acceleration of
the elevator is zero. V. The mechanical energy of the earthelevator system is constant.
Which of the statements are true? 1. all ve are true
2. only II and V are true
3. only I, II, and IV are true correct
4. only I, II, and III are true
5. only IV and V are true
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Potential Energy, Ki ,f d x
h
= m g cos sin
From the conservation of energy on the horizontal plane:
m g h , m g h cot = m g x
Note that the mass cancels out, therefore
netic Energy
x = h1 , cot=
We will consider these statements one at a
0:01 m=cm51:3 cm1 , 0:14 cot51:1 time. I. Since the elevator is moving at con=
0:14
stant speed, the net force on the elevator
= 3:25035 m
must be zero. The tension in the cable must
be equal and opposite to the weight of the
Algorithm
the
is
m
1 elevator, and since cable weight alsoconstant,
hcmi = 0:01 m=cm the tension in the
must
be con
h = 51:3 cm 24
2 stant. II. The kinetic energy depends only
52
3:1 m = 3:51 kg 3:9
3 on the mass of the elevator and its velocity
1
48 = 51:1 55
4 KE = 2 mv2 . Since the mass and velocity
= 0:14 0::12
5 are both constant, the kinetic energy is also
0 32 constant. III. The gravitational potential
mih
energy of the earthelevator system is increas1:0 , tan hcm
180:0
x=
6 ing, because the distance between the elevator
W= 0 Answer, Key Homework 7 Rubin H Landau
and the earth is increasing. The potential energy depends only on the mass of the earth,
the mass of the elevator, and the distance between them. IV. Since the elevator is rising
at constant speed, its acceleration is zero. V.
The mechanical energy of the earthelevator
system is not constant, because the potential
energy is increasing see explanation of III
while the kinetic energy is constant. Since the
mechanical energy is the sum of the kinetic
and potential energies, the mechanical energy
is increasing.
Thus only I, II, and IV are true. 5 ...
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 Spring '08
 ERSKINE/TSOI
 Energy, Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Rubin H Landau, Key Homework

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