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1623_Non-Consequential _Theories

1623_Non-Consequential _Theories - Non-Consequential...

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Unformatted text preview: Non-Consequential Theories Theories that base morality on factors other than the results or outcomes of actions Virtue Based Ethics 1 Greek Virtues Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Socrates, Focuses primarily on personal character Focuses traits and emphasizes the goal of personal excellence by doing the right thing by focusing on certain character traits. Socrates Emphasized the need for critical thinking Emphasized with regards to ethical decision making. Movement away for tradition, customs and Movement religious rituals towards critical view of ethical terms. Developed the ‘Socratic Method’ of Developed interrogating someone who claimed to know the right thing to do. 2 Plato A student of Socrates student Most influential in spreading the ideas of Most Socrates, but more importantly on investigating the virtues. Central virtues: Central Self-control Self Wisdom Wisdom Courage Courage Justice Justice Aristotle Student of Plato Student Key term: eudamonia Key Happiness Happiness Living well Living Flourishing Flourishing Considered over a life time Considered 3 Aristotle All men seek the good. All Teleological theory – emphasis on goal Teleological The eudamonia and virtue are interconnected. The Virtue (excellence) is the means to acquiring the Virtue eudaimonia. Certain types of actions are wrong regardless. Certain Two types of virtue Two Intellectual Intellectual Moral Moral Aristotle Golden mean: Doing the right thing, at the Golden right time, for the right reasons and with the right motives. Virtue is a state of character, concerned Virtue choice, lying in a mean, that mean relative to us and determined by rational principle or by that principle which the rational man would determine it. 4 Application Assume natural desire for happiness and Assume fulfillment . Determine the virtues called for by the Determine situation. Evaluate the options using the Golden Evaluate Mean. Choose the wisest course of action Choose consistent with the virtues and the Golden Mean. Other Virtue Based Ethics Contemporary attempts to focus on the Contemporary development of character. Virtues are chosen which are seen to Virtues promote the best character type. Typical virtues emphasized: Typical Trustworthiness, honesty, responsibility, justice, caring, tolerance, courage. 5 Natural Law Theory The standard in ethics is human nature. The What are our God given natures? What Reason is given to us. No conflict between reason and faith. No Reason can be used to prove the truths Reason of faith and revelation. 6 Division of Basic Values Biological Characteristics Biological Distinctly Human Characteristics Distinctly Four basic values. Life Life Procreative Procreative Knowledge Knowledge Sociability Sociability 7 Life From the natural inclinations that we and From all other animals have to preserve our own existence, we can infer that life is good, that we have an obligation to promote our own health, and that we have the right to self defense. Negatively, this inclination implies that murder and suicide are wrong. Procreation From the natural inclination that we From and all animals have to engage in sexual intercourse and to rear offspring we can infer that procreation is a value and that we have an obligation to produce and rear children. Negatively, this inclination implies that such practices as sterilization, homosexuality, and artificial contraception are wrong. 8 Knowledge From the natural tendency we have From to know, including the tendency to seek knowledge of God, we can infer that knowledge is a value and that we have an obligation to pursue knowledge of the world and God. Negatively, this inclination implies that the stifling of the intellectual curiosity and the pursuit of knowledge is wrong. It also implies that a lack of religion is wrong. religion wrong. Sociability From the natural tendency we have to form From bonds of affection and love with other human beings and to associate with others in societies, we can infer that friendship and love are good and that the state is a natural institution and therefore good. We thus have an obligation to pursue close relationships with other human beings and to submit to the legitimate authority of the state. Negatively, this is inclination implies that activities that interfere with proper human relationships, such as spreading slander and also lies, are wrong. Actions that destroy the state are wrong, also. 9 Contemporary Natural Values Human Life Human Health Health Procreation (human reproduction) Procreation Caring for children and promoting their Caring welfare Knowledge and the avoidance of Knowledge ignorance. Human relationships and the consideration Human of other people’s interest. Application Consider all possible optional actions. Consider Evaluate each action to see if it violates or Evaluate interferes with any of the universal human goods. Eliminate all options that clearly violate Eliminate one or more universal goods. Any options remaining are morally Any permissible. 10 Natural Rights Individual rights as the cornerstone value in American Individual ethics. Locke Locke Life Life Liberty Liberty Property Property Jefferson Jefferson Life Life Liberty Liberty Pursuit of happiness Pursuit Must avoid violation of rights of others. Must Rights are derived from creator. Rights United Nations Human Rights Security Rights – Protect people against murder, injury, and torture. Security Due Process Rights – Protect people against arbitrary and Due excessively harsh punishments and require fair and public trials for those accused of crimes. Liberty Rights – Protects people’s freedoms in areas such as belief, Liberty people’ expression, association and movement. Political Rights – Protect people’s liberty to participate I politics by Political people’ assembling, protesting, voting and serving in public office. Equality Rights – Guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the Equality law, and freedom from discrimination. Welfare Rights – Require that people be provided with education Welfare and protected against starvation and severe poverty. 11 Types of Rights Negative Rights – implies a freedom from Negative the interference of others. Positive Rights – Three Requirements Positive Someone else “owes” you the thing to which Someone you are entitled. You do not have to get it for yourself. You Someone else is supposed to get it for you. Someone Application Consider all possible applications Consider Eliminate any options clearly violate Eliminate anyone’s negative rights. Determine whether any remaining options Determine represent positive rights that might imply obligation to others. All actions that do not violate any positive All or negative rights are morally permissible. 12 ...
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