Egoism - Egoism Psychological Egoism Rational Egoism Ayn...

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1 Egoism Psychological Egoism Rational Egoism Ayn Rand’s Rational Egoism. ± Psychological egoism is the view that everyone always acts in their own self- interest. ± Rational egoism is the view that one ought to act in one’s own rational self- interest. ± Ayn Rand’s form of rational egoism states that one ought to be the primary beneficiary of one’s actions. Distinctions: Egoism v. Egotism ± Egoism: The moral theory that holds that one should act in one’s own self-interest, or that one should be the primary beneficiary of one’s actions. ± Egotism: Excessive reference to oneself in conversation in conversation or writing: conceited; boastful.
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2 Standard View of Egoism ± One sacrifices others to benefit oneself. ± Standard argument If I have to choose between sacrificing myself to others or others to myself, I choose the latter. Ayn Rand’s View ± Correct wrong view of egoism. ± There is a validation for ethics. ± There is an objective standard of value. ± There is a connection between facts and values. ± There is an ultimate principle. ± There is a validation for virtues. Historical Perspective ± Novelist ± Fictional work containing her philosophical view: Atlas Shrugged in 1957. ± 1961 gave speech at Univ. Of Wisconsin ethics symposium “The Objectivist Ethics”
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3 Problems: Existing Theories ± None has an objective basis. ± Ethics taken as a historical fact. ± No moral philosopher has answered the question why does man need a moral code, a code of values. Validation of Values ± One begins with the question: What are Values? Why does man need them? ± The concept ‘value’ is not a primary, it presupposes ‘to whom’ and ‘for what.’ ± Presupposes an entity capable of acting to achieve a goal in the face of an alternative. ± No alternative – no goals and values possible. ± Only one fundamental alternative in the universe: existence or nonexistence. ± This alternative applies to one class of entities: living organisms. Objective Basis of Values
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Egoism - Egoism Psychological Egoism Rational Egoism Ayn...

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