1_Review_Ch_1-1

1_Review_Ch_1-1 - CIS 15AG Review Chapter 1: Introduction...

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CIS 15AG Review Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Computer – a system made of two major components: hardware and software. Hardware – the physical equipment. It has five basic components: Central Processing Unit (CPU) Primary Storage (RAM – Random Access Memory) Auxiliary Storage Devices (such as disk, CD, memory stick) Input Devices (such as keyboard, mouse) Output Devices (printer, monitor) Software – a collection of instructions (programs) that enable us to use the computer hardware to solve problems. It is of two types: System Software : – Operating Systems (OS)– to control the hardware, such as Windows, Unix/Linux, Mac OS – System Support – System Development Application Software : – it runs on top of the operating system, such as Excel, MS Word, and our programs – General Purpose – Application Specific Hardware without software is useless: at least OS needed Sequential Architecture - also known as von Neumann architecture: a computer design model that uses the primary memory to hold both instructions and data and a processor to load instructions from the memory and execute them one at a time. memory (main/primary memory) stores both instructions and data processor loads instructions from memory and executes them one at a time instructions : input : to get data from external devices and store it in the memory output : to send data to external devices arithmetical operations logical operations (such as compare) Computing Environments : – Personal Computer: used by one person (no sharing) – Time-Sharing: one mainframe computer shared by multiple users – Client/Server: multiple computers (servers) and shared by multiple users; each user has a computer called client – Distributed Computing Algorithm (2) a finite set of well-defined instructions for accomplishing a task informally: recipe – driving directions 1
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CIS 15AG Review Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Computer Program a finite set of well-defined instructions that describe a task to be
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1_Review_Ch_1-1 - CIS 15AG Review Chapter 1: Introduction...

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