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ES 140 Final Study Guide

ES 140 Final Study Guide - ES 140 Final Study Guide Climate...

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ES 140 Final Study Guide Climate 1. Climate – average weather, 100 to 1000 millions of years. Average weather conditions at a place over many years. 2. Weather – state of the air at a place with respect to hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or storm. 3. Climate Change – change in weather over a period of time. 4. What drives climate system/influence climate? - Climate system driven by energy from sun (solar radiation). On average Earth gets 342 watts/m2 of energy from Sun Temperatures vary with latitude (warm at equator, cold at poles) Seasonal variations due to tilt of earth 5. How does earth achieve radiative balance? What does it do with the incoming energy? (2) 1. reflect – Albedo (31%) 31% incoming reflected. White reflects – i.e. snow, clouds etc 2. Absorb and Reradiate – reradiates. Aka black body radiation gives off radiation and depends on temperature if input > output = heat up of earth if output < input = cool off of earth input = output, equilibrium 6. Climate Controls (4): solar radiation (latitude), ocean currents/gulf stream, proximity to large bodies of water i.e. ocean (air picks up moisture and heat over waters) proximity – water has high heat capacity, winds, and altitude/elevation. Winds and oceans currents are Earth’s ways to even out distribution of heat on earth. 7. At what latitudes does the earth give off more radiation that it takes in? – radiation more concentrated at equator and less concentrated at poles. Because poles is light reflects more light/radiation. ? 8. 5 Ocean Basins : N Atlantic, S Atlantic, Indian, N. Pacific, S Pacific 9. Thermohaline Circulation – Manifestation of heat transfer, Part of ocean conveyor belt. Flow of deep ocean waters made denser by coldness and saltiness. Giant circulating belt. Transports water based on temperature and change in depth. Global density driven circulation of the oceans. Density of sea water. Warm stuff goes up. Wind-driven surface currents (such as the Gulf Stream) head polewards from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, cooling all the while and eventually sinking at high latitudes (forming North Atlantic Deep Water). Dense water then flows into the ocean basins. While the bulk of it upwells in the Southern Ocean, the oldest waters (with a transit time of around 1600 years) upwell in the North Pacific (Primeau, 2005). Extensive mixing therefore takes place between the ocean basins, reducing differences between them and making the Earth's ocean a global system. On their journey, the water masses transport both energy (in the form of heat) and matter (solids, dissolved substances and gases) around the globe. As such, the state of the circulation has a large impact on the climate of the Earth. 10. Ocean Gyres - A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. It is often used to describe wind or ocean currents, for example the North Pacific Gyre Gyres are caused by the Coriolis effect. Wind driven surface currents. Usually top 500 meter or so of ocean. Found in 5 ocean basins.
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